|Age >18 or <70 yrs|
|Creatinine concentration <1.5 mg/dl|
|AF history >6 months|
|AF burden >2 episodes/month in the last 6 months⁎|
|AF secondary to transient or correctable abnormality|
|Intra-atrial thrombus, tumor precluding catheter insertion|
|LA diameter >65 mm|
|Left ventricular ejection fraction <35%|
|HF symptoms > NYHA functional class II|
|Prior ADT therapy with amiodarone, flecainide, and sotalol|
|Contraindication to beta-blocking therapy|
|Patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease|
|Unstable angina or acute or prior myocardial infarction (<6 months)|
|Renal or hepatic failure|
|Implanted device (pacemaker or cardioverter-defibrillator)|
|Need for antiarrhythmic therapy for arrhythmias other than AF|
|Contraindication to ADT†or anticoagulation with warfarin|
|History of a cerebrovascular accident|
|Prior attempt at catheter or surgical ablation for AF|
ADT = antiarrhythmic drug therapy; AF = atrial fibrillation; DLCO = diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide; HF = heart failure; LA = left atrial; NYHA = New York Heart Association.
↵⁎ The AF burden was quantified before enrolment by review of patient charts.
↵† Thyroid dysfunction, interstitial lung disease with DLCO <70% of predicted or severe asthma, QT interval exceeding 400 ms, symptomatic sinus node or atrioventricular node dysfunction unless a pacemaker is implanted, or evidence of stress-induced myocardial ischemia.