Author + information
- Matthew M. Davis, MD, MAPP,
- Kathryn Taubert, PhD, FAHA,
- Andrea L. Benin, MD,
- David W. Brown, MSPH, MSc,
- George A. Mensah, MD, FAHA, FACC,
- Larry M. Baddour, MD,
- Sandra Dunbar, RN, DSN, FAHA and
- Harlan M. Krumholz, MD, FAHA, FACC
Abstract Evidence from cohort studies and a randomized clinical trial indicates that annual vaccination against seasonal influenza prevents cardiovascular morbidity and all-cause mortality in patients with cardiovascular conditions. The American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology recommend influenza immunization with inactivated vaccine (administered intramuscularly) as part of comprehensive secondary prevention in persons with coronary and other atherosclerotic vascular disease (Class I, Level B). Immunization with live, attenuated vaccine (administered intranasally) is contraindicated for persons with cardiovascular conditions. It is important to note that influenza vaccination coverage levels overall and in this population remain well below national goals and are marked by disparities across different age and ethnic groups. One of the barriers to vaccination for patients with cardiovascular disease is that cardiology practices frequently do not stock and administer influenza vaccine. Healthcare providers who treat individuals with cardiovascular disease can help improve influenza vaccination coverage rates by providing and strongly recommending vaccination to their patients before and throughout the influenza season.
Endorsed by the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation, the American Association of Critical Care Nurses, the American Association of Heart Failure Nurses, the American Diabetes Association, the Association of Black Cardiologists, Inc., the Heart Failure Society of America, and the Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association.
The American Academy of Nurse Practitioners supports the recommendations of this scientific advisory.
This science advisory is consistent with the recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices.
Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology make every effort to avoid any actual or potential conflicts of interest that may arise as a result of an outside relationship or a personal, professional, or business interest of a member of the writing panel. Specifically, all members of the writing group are required to complete and submit a Disclosure Questionnaire showing all such relationships that might be perceived as real or potential conflicts of interest.
This statement was approved by the American Heart Association Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee on August 11, 2006, and by the American College of Cardiology Foundation Board of Trustees on August 7, 2006.
This article has been copublished in the October 3, 2006, issue of Circulation.
Copies: This document is available on the World Wide Web sites of the American College of Cardiology (www.acc.org) and the American Heart Association (www.americanheart.org) . A single reprint is available by calling 800-242-8721 (US only) or writing the American Heart Association, Public Information, 7272 Greenville Ave, Dallas, TX 75231-4596. Ask for reprint No. 71-0374. To purchase additional reprints: Up to 999 copies, call 800-611-6083 (US only) or fax 413-665-2671; 1000 or more copies, call 410-528-4121, fax 410-528-4264, or e-mail .
Permissions: Multiple copies, modification, alteration, enhancement, and/or distribution of this document are not permitted without the express permission of the American Heart Association. Instructions for obtaining permission are located at http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4431. A link to the “Permission Request Form” appears on the right side of the page.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation