|Case||Device||Comorbid Conditions||Presentation||Microorganism||Initial Hardware Removal||Reinserted New Device||Timing of Relapse (weeks)||Relapse/Outcome|
|1||ICD (TVL + EPL)||DM, CHF||Pocket + BSI||CoNS||Partial⁎||No||6||EPL surgically removed at relapse. However, patient died of stroke.|
|2||ICD (TVL + EPL)||CHF||Pocket infection||MSSA||Partial†||Yes||4||Relapsed with device-related TV endocarditis.|
|Cured with removal of epicardial patches.|
|3||ICD (EPL)||CHF||Pocket + BSI||CoNS||Partial⁎||Yes||16||Persistent pocket infection at last follow-up.|
|4||PPM (TVL)||Liver TX, Hodgkins lymphoma, HD, CHF||Endocarditis||MRSA||Complete||Yes‡||12||Died of MRSA sepsis and small bowel perforation despite removal of new device.|
|5||PPM (TVL)||CHF||Endocarditis||CoNS||Complete||Yes§||24||Cured with removal of replacement device.|
BSI = bloodstream infection; CHF = congestive heart failure; CoNS = coagulase-negative staphylococci; DM = diabetes mellitus; EPL = epicardial leads; HD = hemodialysis; ICD = implantable cardioverter-defibrillator; MRSA = methicillin-resistant S. aureus;MSSA = methicillin-sensitive S. aureus;PPM = permanent pacemaker; TV = tricuspid valve; TVL = transvenous leads; TX = transplant.
↵⁎ Patient had abandoned EPL from previous devices, which were not removed because of high operative risk.
↵† Epicardial patches were difficult to remove at initial surgery and were left behind.
↵‡ Patient had dialysis catheter–related MRSA bacteremia with seeding of new device.
↵§ Temporary pacing wires before insertion of new device.