Author + information
- Received April 10, 2006
- Revision received August 17, 2006
- Accepted August 21, 2006
- Published online January 16, 2007.
- Maxime Cannesson, MD⁎,2,
- Masaki Tanabe, MD⁎,
- Matthew S. Suffoletto, MD⁎,
- Dennis M. McNamara, MD, FACC⁎,
- Shobhit Madan, MD†,
- Joan M. Lacomis, MD† and
- John Gorcsan III, MD, FACC⁎,1,⁎ ()
- ↵⁎Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. John Gorcsan III, University of Pittsburgh, Scaife 564, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213-2582.
Objectives We sought to test the hypothesis that a novel 2-dimensional echocardiographic image analysis system using artificial intelligence-learned pattern recognition can rapidly and reproducibly calculate ejection fraction (EF).
Background Echocardiographic EF by manual tracing is time consuming, and visual assessment is inherently subjective.
Methods We studied 218 patients (72 female), including 165 with abnormal left ventricular (LV) function. Auto EF incorporated a database trained on >10,000 human EF tracings to automatically locate and track the LV endocardium from routine grayscale digital cineloops and calculate EF in 15 s. Auto EF results were independently compared with manually traced biplane Simpson’s rule, visual EF, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a subset.
Results Auto EF was possible in 200 (92%) of consecutive patients, of which 77% were completely automated and 23% required manual editing. Auto EF correlated well with manual EF (r = 0.98; 6% limits of agreement) and required less time per patient (48 ± 26 s vs. 102 ± 21 s; p < 0.01). Auto EF correlated well with visual EF by expert readers (r = 0.96; p < 0.001), but interobserver variability was greater (3.4 ± 2.9% vs. 9.8 ± 5.7%, respectively; p < 0.001). Visual EF was less accurate by novice readers (r = 0.82; 19% limits of agreement) and improved with trainee-operated Auto EF (r = 0.96; 7% limits of agreement). Auto EF also correlated with MRI EF (n = 21) (r = 0.95; 12% limits of agreement), but underestimated absolute volumes (r = 0.95; bias of −36 ± 27 ml overall).
Conclusions Auto EF can automatically calculate EF similarly to results by manual biplane Simpson’s rule and MRI, with less variability than visual EF, and has clinical potential.
- Received April 10, 2006.
- Revision received August 17, 2006.
- Accepted August 21, 2006.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation