Author + information
- Received July 7, 2006
- Revision received August 8, 2006
- Accepted August 30, 2006
- Published online February 13, 2007.
- Hans Persson, MD, PhD⁎,⁎ (, )
- Eva Lonn, MD, MSc†,
- Magnus Edner, MD, PhD⁎,
- Lawrence Baruch, MD‡,
- Chim C. Lang, MD§,
- John J. Morton, PhD∥,
- Jan Östergren, MD, PhD¶,
- Robert S. McKelvie, MD, PhD†,
- Investigators of the CHARM Echocardiographic Substudy–CHARMES
- ↵⁎Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Hans Persson, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital Department of Cardiology, Stockholm, Sweden.
Objectives We tested the hypothesis that diastolic dysfunction (DD) was an important predictor of cardiovascular (CV) death or heart failure (HF) hospitalization in a subset of patients (ejection fraction [EF] >40%) in the CHARM-Preserved study.
Background More than 40% of hospitalized patients with HF have preserved systolic function (HF-PSF), suggesting that DD may be responsible for the clinical manifestations of HF.
Methods Patients underwent Doppler echocardiographic examination that included assessment of pulmonary venous flow or determination of plasma NT-pro-brain natriuretic peptide ≥14 months after randomization to candesartan or placebo. The patients were classified into 1 of 4 diastolic function groups: normal, relaxation abnormality (mild dysfunction), pseudonormal (moderate dysfunction), and restrictive (severe dysfunction).
Results There were 312 patients in the study, mean age was 66 ± 11 years, EF was 50 ± 10%, and 34% were women. The median follow-up was 18.7 months. Diastolic dysfunction was found in 67% of classified patients (n = 293), and moderate and severe DD were identified in 44%. Moderate and severe DD had a poor outcome compared with normal and mild DD (18% vs. 5%, p < 0.01). Diastolic dysfunction, age, diabetes, previous HF, and atrial fibrillation were univariate predictors of outcome. In multivariate analysis, moderate (hazard ratio [HR] 3.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 11.1) and severe DD (HR 5.7, 95% CI 1.4 to 24.0) remained the only independent predictors (p = 0.003).
Conclusions Objective evidence of DD was found in two-thirds of HF-PSF patients. Moderate and severe DD, which were found in less than one-half of the patients, were important predictors of adverse outcome. The results demonstrate the prognostic significance and need for objective evidence of DD in HF-PSF patients.
This study was supported by research grants from AstraZeneca and the Karolinska Institutet.
- Received July 7, 2006.
- Revision received August 8, 2006.
- Accepted August 30, 2006.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation