Author + information
- Received August 28, 1984
- Revision received November 27, 1984
- Accepted December 20, 1984
- Published online May 1, 1985.
- Henry Newman, MB1,2,
- Declan Sugrue, MB1,
- Celia M. Oakley, MD, FACC1,
- John F. Goodwin, MD, FACC1 and
- William J. McKenna, MD*,1
- ↵*Address for reprints: William J. McKenna, MD, Division of Cardiovascular Disease, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0HS, England.
Left ventricular cineangiograms performed at the time of diagnosis in 88 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were digitized to evaluate the relation of left ventricular function and prognosis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Eleven patients died suddenly after a mean follow-up period of 7.5 ± 7 years, 10 patients died of congestive heart failure or after cardiac surgery and 67 were alive after a mean follow-up period of 8.6 ± 4 years. Measurements of left ventricular volume, ejection fraction, peak rate of ejection and filling and time to peak rate of ejection and filling were derived from curves of ventricular volume and its rate of change during the cardiac cycle. Patients who died suddenly had a lower peak rate of ventricular ejection (stroke volume-normalized peak ejection rate 5.41 ± 0.69 versus 6.24 ± 1.33 s−1; p = 0.006) and lower peak rate of ventricular filling (end-diastolic volume-normalized peak filling rate 4.02 ± 0.94 versus 4.88 ± 1.53 s−1; p = 0.02) and stroke volume-normalized peak filling rate (4.75 ± 1.08 versus 5.82 ± 1.70 s−1; p = 0.01) compared with survivors. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that sudden death was best predicted by the combination of increased end-diastolic volume, small end-systolic volume and low peak filling rate (predictive accuracy 32%, false negative 18% and false positive 28%). The addition of clinical features and hemodynamic measurements to the analysis improved predictive accuracy to 43% (false negative 18% and false positive 18%).
Ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring performed in 57 of the 88 patients 1 month to 17 years (median 8 years) after diagnosis revealed ventricular tachycardia in 14 (25%). Of these, 10 who survived had hyperkinetic systolic function at diagnosis, whereas the 4 who died suddenly had impaired systolic function (end-diastolic volume-normalized peak ejection rate 5.93 ± 1.2 versus 4.01 ± 1.2 s−1, respectively; p = 0.04). In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, ventricular tachycardia is a sensitive but nonspecific marker of adults who are at risk of sudden death. Impaired systolic function may be an important determinant of which patients with ventricular tachycardia die suddenly.
This study shows that indexes of ventricular function contribute to the identification of patients at particular risk of sudden death. However, the predictive power of the clinical features and hemodynamic and angiographic measurements that could be assessed was poor. To accurately identify the patient at high risk of sudden death, further studies are needed which incorporate into the analysis measurements of right and left ventricular hypertrophy, the characterization of gradients in relation to mechanism and assessment of the capacity of the myocardium to propagate as well as initiate arrhythmia.
- Received August 28, 1984.
- Revision received November 27, 1984.
- Accepted December 20, 1984.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation