Author + information
- Received November 6, 2006
- Revision received July 23, 2007
- Accepted August 21, 2007
- Published online November 20, 2007.
- Niamh Kilcullen, MRCPI⁎,2,⁎ (, )
- Karthik Viswanathan, MRCP⁎,3,
- Rajiv Das, MRCP⁎,2,
- Christine Morrell⁎,
- Amanda Farrin, MSc†,
- Julian H. Barth, MD, FRCP, FRCPath‡,1,
- Alistair S. Hall, PhD, FRCP⁎,1,
- EMMACE-2 Investigators
- ↵⁎Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Niamh Kilcullen, C-NET Group, Clinical Cardiology, G Floor Jubilee Building, General Infirmary at Leeds, Leeds, LS1 3EX Yorkshire, United Kingdom.
Objectives Our aim was to determine if a high-performance assay for heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) has a role in predicting all-cause mortality after acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Background Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein is released into the circulation following myocardial ischemia and necrosis and therefore may be of value to physicians when caring for patients admitted to hospital with a clinical diagnosis of ACS.
Methods This was a prospective observational study with a follow-up of 12 months. The H-FABP was measured 12 to 24 h after onset of symptoms in 1,448 patients admitted to hospital with ACS. The main outcome measure was all-cause mortality 1 year after index hospital admission. Multivariable analyses were conducted using the well validated GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) variables together with troponin I and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP).
Results After 12 months of follow-up, 296 patients had died. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that H-FABP quartiles were strongly predictive of outcome: Q1 hazard ratio (HR) 1.0; Q2 HR 2.32 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25 to 4.30; p = 0.007); Q3 HR 3.17 (95% CI 1.73 to 5.82; p < 0.001); Q4 HR 4.88 (95% CI 2.67 to 8.93; p < 0.001). The crude all-cause 1-year mortality for unstable angina patients with H-FABP <5.8 μg/l was 2.1% compared with 22.9% for patients above this cutoff. The adjusted all-cause mortality HR in this group was 11.35 (95% CI 2.00 to 64.34; p = 0.006).
Conclusions Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein predicts long-term mortality after ACS and identifies high-risk patients in a manner that is additive to the GRACE clinical risk factors, troponin, and hs-CRP, possibly as a result of identifying the occurrence of myocardial ischemia with or without necrosis.
↵1 Prof. Hall and Dr. Barth have received support in the form of free reagents from Beckman Coulter and Dainippon Pharmaceutical and research grants from AstraZeneca and Sanofi-Aventis in support of the EMMACE-2 study.
↵2 Rajiv Das and Niamh Kilcullen held British Heart Foundation Junior Research Fellowships.
↵3 Karthik Viswanathan is supported by grants from Pfizer and Medtronic.
The structure of the EMMACE-2 Study Group is provided as an Online Appendix.
- Received November 6, 2006.
- Revision received July 23, 2007.
- Accepted August 21, 2007.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation