Author + information
- Received October 2, 2007
- Revision received January 30, 2008
- Accepted February 5, 2008
- Published online May 27, 2008.
- Ronald Ching-Wan Ma, MA⁎,
- Wing-Yee So, MBChB⁎,
- Xilin Yang, PhD⁎,
- Linda Wai-Ling Yu, MBChB⁎,
- Alice Pik-Shan Kong, MBChB⁎,‡,
- Gary Tin-Choi Ko, MD†,
- Chun-Chung Chow, MBBS⁎,
- Clive Stewart Cockram, MD⁎,
- Juliana Chung-Ngor Chan, MD⁎,† and
- Peter Chun-Yip Tong, PhD⁎,†,⁎ ()
- ↵⁎Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Peter C. Y. Tong, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong SAR, China.
Objectives We examined the predictive power of erectile dysfunction (ED) on coronary heart disease (CHD) events in Chinese men with type 2 diabetes.
Background Subjects with diabetes are prone to develop cardiovascular complications. Erectile dysfunction is strongly associated with CHD in cross-sectional studies, but prospective data are lacking.
Methods A consecutive cohort of men with no clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease underwent comprehensive assessments for diabetic complications. Erectile dysfunction was defined according to the definition of the National Institutes of Health Consensus Conference 1992. Coronary heart disease events were censored with centralized territory-wide hospital databases in 2005.
Results Of 2,306 subjects (age: 54.2 ± 12.7 years; follow-up: 4.0 [range 1.7 to 7.1] years), 26.7% had ED at baseline. The incidence of CHD events was higher in men with ED than those without (19.7/1,000 person-years, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14.3 to 25.2 person-years vs. 9.5/1,000 person-years, 95% CI 7.4 to 11.7 person-years). Men who developed CHD events were older; had a higher frequency of ED and microvascular complications; had longer duration of diabetes; and had higher blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio but lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and estimated glomerular filtration rate than those without CHD events. Erectile dysfunction remained an independent predictor for CHD events (hazard ratio 1.58, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.30, p = 0.018) after adjustment for other covariates along with age, duration of disease, and use of antihypertensive agents and albuminuria.
Conclusions In type 2 diabetic men without clinically overt cardiovascular disease, the presence of ED predicts a new onset of CHD events. Symptoms of ED should be independently sought to identify high-risk subjects for comprehensive cardiovascular assessments.
This study was partially supported by an MSD University Grant and the Hong Kong Foundation for Research and Development in Diabetes, established under the auspices of the Chinese University of Hong Kong.
The authors had full access to the data and take responsibility for its integrity. All authors have read and agree to the article as written.
- Received October 2, 2007.
- Revision received January 30, 2008.
- Accepted February 5, 2008.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation