Author + information
- Received June 4, 2008
- Revision received August 6, 2008
- Accepted August 13, 2008
- Published online December 9, 2008.
- John H. Lee, MD⁎,
- James H. O'Keefe, MD⁎,⁎ (, )
- David Bell, MD†,
- Donald D. Hensrud, MD, MPH‡ and
- Michael F. Holick, MD, PhD§
- ↵⁎Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. James H. O'Keefe, 4330 Wornall Road, Suite 2000, Kansas City, Missouri 64111
Vitamin D deficiency is a highly prevalent condition, present in approximately 30% to 50% of the general population. A growing body of data suggests that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels may adversely affect cardiovascular health. Vitamin D deficiency activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and can predispose to hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. Additionally, vitamin D deficiency causes an increase in parathyroid hormone, which increases insulin resistance and is associated with diabetes, hypertension, inflammation, and increased cardiovascular risk. Epidemiologic studies have associated low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels with coronary risk factors and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Vitamin D supplementation is simple, safe, and inexpensive. Large randomized controlled trials are needed to firmly establish the relevance of vitamin D status to cardiovascular health. In the meanwhile, monitoring serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and correction of vitamin D deficiency is indicated for optimization of musculoskeletal and general health.
Dr. O'Keefe is an unpaid scientific consultant to CardioTabs. Funds derived from this company are used for marketing and patient education at Cardiovascular Consultants, the group practice with which Dr. O'Keefe is affiliated. Dr. Holick is a speaker and consultant for the National Dairy Council and the UV Foundation
- Received June 4, 2008.
- Revision received August 6, 2008.
- Accepted August 13, 2008.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation