Author + information
- Received February 6, 2008
- Revision received March 18, 2008
- Accepted March 18, 2008
- Published online July 22, 2008.
- Markus Juonala, MD, PhD⁎,⁎ (, )
- Jorma S.A. Viikari, MD, PhD⁎,
- Mika Kähönen, MD, PhD¶,#,
- Tiina Solakivi, PhD∥,
- Hans Helenius, MSc†,
- Antti Jula, MD, PhD⁎⁎,
- Jukka Marniemi, PhD⁎⁎,
- Leena Taittonen, MD, PhD††,‡‡,
- Tomi Laitinen, MD, PhD§§,
- Tapio Nikkari, MD, PhD∥ and
- Olli T. Raitakari, MD, PhD‡,§
- ↵⁎Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Markus Juonala, P.O. Box 52, 20521 Turku, Finland.
Objectives The aim of this study was to determine whether apolipoproteins (apo) B and A-I measured in childhood and adolescence predict atherosclerosis in adulthood.
Background Exposure to dyslipidemia in childhood predicts the development of atherosclerosis. Apolipoproteins B and A-I might be good markers of atherogenic dyslipidemia, but there is a paucity of information concerning their importance in childhood.
Methods Apolipoproteins B and A-I, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, obesity, insulin, C-reactive protein, and smoking were assessed in 1980 and 2001 among 879 subjects in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (ages 3 to 18 years at baseline). Carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) were measured in 2001 at the age of 24 to 39 years.
Results In subjects ages 12 to 18 years at baseline, apoB and apoB/apoA-I ratio were directly (p < 0.001) related and apoA-I was inversely (p = 0.01) related with adulthood IMT. In subjects ages 3 to 18 years at baseline, apoB (p = 0.02) and the apoB/apoA-I ratio (p < 0.001) were inversely related and apoA-I (p = 0.003) was directly related to adulthood FMD. These relations were not altered when the effects of nonlipid risk factors and adulthood apolipoproteins were taken into account. The apoB/apoA-I ratio measured in adolescence was superior to LDL/HDL ratio (c-values, 0.623 vs. 0.569, p = 0.03) in predicting increased IMT in adulthood (IMT ≥90th percentile and/or carotid plaque).
Conclusions Apolipoproteins B and A-I measured in children and adolescents reflect a lipoprotein profile predisposing to the development of subclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood. These markers might have value in pediatric lipid risk assessment.
This study was financially supported by the Academy of Finland (grants 77841, 210283, 121584, 34316), the Social Insurance Institution of Finland, the Turku University Foundation, the Juho Vainio Foundation, research funds from the Turku and Tampere University Hospitals, the Finnish Foundation of Cardiovascular Research, the Finnish Medical Foundation, and the Finnish Cultural Foundation.
- Received February 6, 2008.
- Revision received March 18, 2008.
- Accepted March 18, 2008.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation