(A)The relationship between Ees and Ea was similar among each group (dashed linesshow 95% prediction bands). (B to D)Load-independent chamber contractility (PRSW and sc-eFS) and myocardial contractility (sc-mFS) were increased in hypertensive patients without HF and decreased in patients with HFpEF compared with hypertensive and control patients. Data are mean ± SD. *p < 0.05 versus control; †p < 0.05 versus hypertension. Ea = effective arterial elastance; Ees = end-systolic elastance; eFS = endocardial fractional shortening; HFpEF = heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; mFS = midwall fractional shortening; PRSW = pre-load recruitable stroke work; sc = stress-corrected; VA = ventricular-arterial.