Author + information
- Received September 15, 2009
- Revision received March 5, 2010
- Accepted March 18, 2010
- Published online May 11, 2010.
- Shreenidhi M. Venuraju, MBBS*,* (, )
- Ajay Yerramasu, MBBS*,
- Roger Corder, PhD, MRPharmS† and
- Avijit Lahiri, MBBS, MSc*,‡,§
- ↵*Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Shreenidhi Venuraju, Clinical Imaging and Research Centre, Wellington Hospital, London, United Kingdom NW8 9LE
Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a glycoprotein that acts as a decoy receptor for receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. The OPG/RANKL/receptor activator of nuclear factor κB axis plays an important regulatory role in the skeletal, immune, and vascular systems. The protective role of OPG, in animal models, against vascular calcification has not been replicated in human trials; moreover, increased OPG levels have been consistently associated with the incidence and prevalence of coronary artery disease. There seems to be some dichotomy in the role of OPG, RANKL, and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in atherosclerosis and plaque stability. In this review, we integrate the findings from some of the important studies and try to draw conclusions with a view to gaining some insight into the complex interactions of the OPG/RANKL/receptor activator of nuclear factor κB axis and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis.
- receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand
- tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand
- vascular calcification
- Received September 15, 2009.
- Revision received March 5, 2010.
- Accepted March 18, 2010.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation
- Overview of Bone and Vascular Biology
- Biochemistry of OPG
- OPG/RANKL/Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κB (RANK) Axis and TRAIL
- Role of OPG in Atherosclerosis and Vascular Calcification
- TRAIL, Atherosclerosis, and Cardiovascular Disease
- OPG, Diabetes, and CAD
- OPG and Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease
- Role of OPG in Left Ventricular Dysfunction