Author + information
- Received December 2, 2009
- Revision received February 22, 2010
- Accepted April 13, 2010
- Published online August 31, 2010.
- Pierre Bordachar, MD*,* (, )
- Nicolas Derval, MD*,
- Sylvain Ploux, MD*,
- Stephane Garrigue, MD†,
- Philippe Ritter, MD*,
- Michel Haissaguerre, MD* and
- Pierre Jaïs, MD*
- ↵*Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Pierre Bordachar, Hospital Haut Leveque, Service Pr. Haissaguerre, Pessac 33604, France
Biventricular resynchronization, a therapy recommended for patients presenting with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and ventricular dyssynchrony, requires the implantation of an LV lead, usually placed in a lateral or posterolateral tributary of the coronary sinus. Despite important progress made in the development of dedicated instrumentation, the procedure remains sometimes challenging and unsuccessful in a minority of patients. In the rare instances of unsuccessful transvenous implantations occurring in the presence of major surgical contraindications, a few operators have implanted the LV lead transseptally, an approach limited by technical difficulties and by the thromboembolic risk associated with the presence of a lead inside the LV cavity. The interest in this approach was recently renewed by 2 studies in an animal model and in humans, respectively, which both found a distinctly superior hemodynamic performance associated with endocardial compared with epicardial stimulation. This review discusses the advantages and disadvantages of LV endocardial stimulation, examines the various techniques of LV endocardial stimulation, and projects their future applications in light of these highly promising recent results. The implementation of endocardial stimulation will ultimately depend on: 1) the development of safe, effective, and durable instrumentation, and reliable and reproducible intraprocedural methods to identify the optimal site of stimulation; and 2) the completion of controlled trials confirming the superiority of this technique compared with standard cardiac resynchronization therapy.
- cardiac resynchronization therapy
- biventricular stimulation
- epicardial stimulation
- endocardial stimulation
- heart failure
The authors have reported that they have no relationships to disclose.
- Received December 2, 2009.
- Revision received February 22, 2010.
- Accepted April 13, 2010.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation