Author + information
- Received July 8, 2008
- Revision received April 21, 2010
- Accepted May 10, 2010
- Published online October 12, 2010.
- ↵⁎Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Douglas W. Losordo, Feinberg Cardiovascular Research Institute, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Tarry 14-725, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611
Cytokine therapy promises to provide a noninvasive treatment option for ischemic heart disease. Cytokines are thought to influence angiogenesis directly via effects on endothelial cells or indirectly through progenitor cell-based mechanisms or by activating the expression of other angiogenic agents. Several cytokines mobilize progenitor cells from the bone marrow or are involved in the homing of mobilized cells to ischemic tissue. The recruited cells contribute to myocardial regeneration both as a structural component of the regenerating tissue and by secreting angiogenic or antiapoptotic factors, including cytokines. To date, randomized, controlled clinical trials have not reproduced the efficacy observed in pre-clinical and small-scale clinical investigations. Nevertheless, the list of promising cytokines continues to grow, and combinations of cytokines, with or without concurrent progenitor cell therapy, warrant further investigation.
This work was supported in part by National Institutes of Healthgrants HL-53354, HL-57516, HL-77428, HL-63414, HL-80137, and HL-95874. The authors have reported that they have no relationships to disclose.
- Received July 8, 2008.
- Revision received April 21, 2010.
- Accepted May 10, 2010.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation