Author + information
- Received May 18, 2010
- Revision received September 7, 2010
- Accepted September 13, 2010
- Published online January 25, 2011.
- Andrew Sherwood, PhD⁎,⁎ (, )
- James A. Blumenthal, PhD⁎,
- Alan L. Hinderliter, MD†,
- Gary G. Koch, PhD‡,
- Kirkwood F. Adams Jr, MD†,
- Carla Sueta Dupree, MD†,
- Daniel R. Bensimhon, MD§,
- Kristy S. Johnson, MPH⁎,
- Ranak Trivedi, PhD⁎,
- Margaret Bowers, NP⁎,
- Robert H. Christenson, PhD∥ and
- Christopher M. O'Connor, MD⁎
- ↵⁎Reprints requests and correspondence:
Dr. Andrew Sherwood, Box 3119, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710
Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of changes in symptoms of depression over a 1-year period on subsequent clinical outcomes in heart failure (HF) patients.
Background Emerging evidence shows that clinical depression, which is prevalent among patients with HF, is associated with a poor prognosis. However, it is uncertain how changes in depression symptoms over time may relate to clinical outcomes.
Methods One-hundred forty-seven HF outpatients with ejection fraction of less than 40% were assessed for depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at baseline and again 1 year later. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses, controlling for established risk factors, were used to evaluate how changes in depressive symptoms were related to a combined primary end point of death or cardiovascular hospitalization over a median follow-up period of 5 years (with a range of 4 to 7 years and no losses to follow-up).
Results The 1-year change in symptoms of depression, as indicated by higher BDI scores over a 1-year interval (1-point BDI change hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02 to 1.12, p = 0.007), was associated with death or cardiovascular hospitalization after controlling for baseline depression (baseline BDI HR: 1.1, 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.14, p < 0.001) and established risk factors, including HF cause, age, ejection fraction, plasma N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide level, and prior hospitalizations.
Conclusions Worsening symptoms of depression are associated with a poorer prognosis in HF patients. Routine assessment of symptoms of depression in HF patients may help to guide appropriate medical management of these patients who are at increased risk for adverse clinical outcomes.
This study was supported by grant HL61784 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, and grant M01-RR-30 from the General Clinical Research Center Program, National Center for Research Resources, National Institutes of Health. Dr. O'Connor has relationships with Merck, Medtronic, Forest, GE Healthcare, Amgen, Medpace, Roche, Actelion, Johnson & Johnson, Novella, and Trevena. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships to disclose.
- Received May 18, 2010.
- Revision received September 7, 2010.
- Accepted September 13, 2010.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation