|• History of ischemic heart disease|
|• History of compensated or prior heart failure|
|• History of cerebrovascular disease|
|• Diabetes mellitus (requiring insulin)|
|• Renal insufficiency (creatinine >2.0)|
↵⁎ As defined by the 2009 ACCF/AHA Focused Update on Perioperative Beta Blockade Incorporated Into the ACC/AHA 2007 Guidelines on Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation and Care for Noncardiac Surgery (16). Note that these are not standard coronary artery disease risk factors.