Author + information
- Received May 15, 2011
- Revision received June 28, 2011
- Accepted July 5, 2011
- Published online October 4, 2011.
- Carl J. Lavie, MD⁎ (, )
- John H. Lee, MD and
- Richard V. Milani, MD
- ↵⁎Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Carl J. Lavie, Cardiac Rehabilitation, Exercise Laboratories, John Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute, Ochsner Clinical School, University of Queensland School of Medicine, 1514 Jefferson Highway, New Orleans, Louisiana 70121-2483
Substantial evidence suggests that a large portion of the population have suboptimal levels of vitamin D, which may adversely affect the cardiovascular (CV) system, including increasing levels of parathyroid hormone, activating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and increasing insulin resistance, thus leading to hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy, metabolic syndrome/diabetes mellitus, systemic inflammation, and increased risk of atherosclerosis and CV disease events. We review the evidence that vitamin D deficiency is associated with incident CV disease events, as well as evidence that vitamin D supplementation is associated with reduction in CV diseases. Although the current evidence has created substantial hype, randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether routine vitamin D assessment and supplementation will improve CV outcomes.
The authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received May 15, 2011.
- Revision received June 28, 2011.
- Accepted July 5, 2011.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation