Author + information
- Received May 20, 2011
- Revision received July 14, 2011
- Accepted July 18, 2011
- Published online November 1, 2011.
- Roberto M. Lang, MD⁎ (, )
- Wendy Tsang, MD,
- Lynn Weinert, BS,
- Victor Mor-Avi, PhD and
- Sonal Chandra, MD
- ↵⁎Reprints requests and correspondence:
Dr. Roberto M. Lang, University of Chicago Medical Center, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, MC5084, Chicago, Illinois 60637
Significant advances in 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) technology have ushered its use into clinical practice. The recent advent of real-time 3DE using matrix array transthoracic and transesophageal transducers has resulted in improved image spatial resolution, and therefore, enhanced visualization of the pathomorphological features of the cardiac valves compared with previously used sparse array transducers. It has enabled an unparalleled real-time visualization of valves and subvalvular anatomic features from a single volume acquisition without the need for offline reconstruction. On-cart or offline post-processing using commercially available and custom 3-dimensional analysis software allows the quantification of multiple parameters, such as orifice area, prolapse height and volume in mitral valve disease, area of the left ventricular outflow tract, and tricuspid annular geometry. In this review, we discuss the incremental role of 3DE in evaluating valvular anatomic features, volumetric quantification, pre-surgical planning, intraprocedural guidance, and post-procedural assessment of valvular heart disease.
- aortic valve
- mitral valve
- pulmonic valve
- three-dimensional echocardiography
- tricuspid valve
- valvular heart disease
Dr. Tsang is funded through a Canadian Institute of Health Research research fellowship grant. All authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose. Drs. Tsang and Chandra contributed equally to this work.
- Received May 20, 2011.
- Revision received July 14, 2011.
- Accepted July 18, 2011.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation