Author + information
- Received June 16, 2011
- Revision received July 26, 2011
- Accepted August 15, 2011
- Published online November 1, 2011.
- Takatoshi Kasai, MD, PhD⁎,†,
- JoAnne Arcand, MSc, RD‡,
- Johane P. Allard, MD‡,
- Susanna Mak, MD, PhD‡,
- Eduardo R. Azevedo, MD‡,
- Gary E. Newton, MD‡ and
- T. Douglas Bradley, MD⁎,†,‡,⁎ ()
- ↵⁎Reprints requests and correspondence:
Dr. T. Douglas Bradley, Toronto General Hospital of the University Health Network, 9N-943, 200 Elizabeth Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4, Canada
Objectives The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that severity of sleep apnea (SA), assessed by frequency of apneas and hypopneas per hour of sleep (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI]), is related to sodium intake in patients with heart failure (HF).
Background Dependent edema and overnight rostral fluid shift from the legs correlate with the AHI in patients with HF in whom excessive sodium intake can cause fluid retention.
Methods Sodium intake was estimated by food recordings in 54 HF patients who underwent overnight polysomnography.
Results Thirty-one of the 54 patients had SA, and their mean sodium intake was higher than that in those without SA (3.0 ± 1.2 g vs. 1.9 ± 0.8 g, p < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between the AHI and sodium intake (r = 0.522, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that the significant independent correlates of the AHI were sodium intake, male sex, and serum creatinine level.
Conclusions These findings suggest that in patients with HF, sodium intake plays a role in the pathogenesis of SA.
This study was supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research operating grant MOP-82731 and Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario operating grant NA-5897. Dr. Kasai was supported by an unrestricted research fellowship from Fuji-Respironics Inc. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose. Drs. Kasai and Arcand contributed equally to this work.
- Received June 16, 2011.
- Revision received July 26, 2011.
- Accepted August 15, 2011.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation