Author + information
- Received March 7, 2011
- Revision received May 13, 2011
- Accepted July 5, 2011
- Published online November 1, 2011.
- ↵⁎Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Hsu-Ko Kuo, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, Texas 77555
Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) among U.S. women.
Background Oncogenic proteins derived from tumor-associated HPV induce the degradation of tumor suppressor protein p53. Inactivation of p53 is associated with accelerated atherosclerotic process. However, the association between HPV infection with CVD remains unclear.
Methods Data were from 2,450 women (age 20 to 59 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003 to 2006. Self-collected vaginal swab specimens were sent for HPV DNA analysis by L1 consensus polymerase chain reaction followed by type-specific hybridization. CVD was ascertained by self-reported diagnosis of myocardial infarction or stroke.
Results A total of 60 females (39 women were HPV DNA positive, whereas 21 were negative) had coronary artery disease. Presence of vaginal HPV DNA was associated with CVD. Odds ratio (OR) of CVD comparing women with presence of vaginal HPV DNA to those without was 2.30 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.27 to 4.16) after controlling for demographics, health/sex behaviors, medical comorbidities, cardiovascular risk factors, and management. At the same level of adjustment, OR of CVD comparing women with cancer-associated HPV types to those with negative HPV was 2.86 (95% CI: 1.43 to 5.70).
Conclusions HPV infection, especially cancer-associated oncogenic types, is associated with CVD among women.
An American Heart Association Grant-in-Aid South West Affiliated (11GRNT7770000) was given to Dr. Fujise. Dr. Kuo has reported that he has no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received March 7, 2011.
- Revision received May 13, 2011.
- Accepted July 5, 2011.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation