Author + information
- Received September 27, 2010
- Accepted October 6, 2010
- Published online July 5, 2011.
We present a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach (1) for the complete anatomical and flow evaluation of postsurgical pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis in a 1-year-old boy after repair of obstructed infracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous return and patent vertical vein (VV).
Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and cardiovascular MRI (at 1.5-T) were performed under general anesthesia to evaluate the residual PV stenosis. TEE failed to delineate the distal course of the PV (A to C) and the proximal origin of the left upper PV, which could be demonstrated by 4-dimensional (4D)-flow MRI (D to F). The proposed 4D flow MRI sequence complemented MRI imaging by adding qualitative (G,Online Video 1) and quantitative (H and I,Online Video 2) information of PV blood flow. As a nonionizing and noninvasive procedure, 4D flow MRI may be an alternative to x-ray angiography, multidetector computed tomography, or TEE for diagnosis or follow-up of PV stenosis. LA = left atrium; LLPV = left lower pulmonary veins; LUPV = left upper pulmonary veins; LV =left ventricle; RA = right atrium; RLPV = right lower pulmonary vein; RUPV = right upper pulmonary vein; RV = right ventricle.
This work was supported by EuHeart, Virtual Physiological Human Network of Excellence (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement 224495.
- Received September 27, 2010.
- Accepted October 6, 2010.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation
- Valverde I.,
- Simpson J.,
- Schaeffter T.,
- Beerbaum P.