Author + information
- Received April 13, 2011
- Revision received September 23, 2011
- Accepted September 27, 2011
- Published online January 24, 2012.
- Faisal A. Arain, MD, MS⁎,
- Zi Ye, MD⁎,
- Kent R. Bailey, PhD†,
- Qian Chen, MD⁎,
- Guanghui Liu, MS⁎,
- Cynthia L. Leibson, PhD‡ and
- Iftikhar J. Kullo, MD⁎,⁎ ()
- ↵⁎Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Iftikhar J. Kullo, Division of Cardiovascular Disease and the Gonda Vascular Center, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, Minnesota 55905
Objectives This study sought to compare survival of patients with poorly compressible arteries (PCA) to those with a normal ankle-brachial index (ABI) and those with peripheral arterial disease (PAD).
Background Limited data are available regarding survival in patients with PCA identified in the clinical setting by noninvasive lower extremity arterial evaluation.
Methods We conducted a historical cohort study of consecutive patients who underwent outpatient, noninvasive lower extremity arterial evaluation at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, from January 1998 through December 2007, and who were followed for a mean duration of 5.8 ± 3.1 years. An ABI 1.00 to 1.30 was considered normal, PAD was defined as a resting or post-exercise ABI ≤0.90, and PCA defined as an ABI ≥1.4 and/or an ankle systolic blood pressure >255 mm Hg. Patients were followed for all-cause mortality through September 30, 2009.
Results Of 16,493 individuals (mean age 67.8 ± 13.0 years, 59% male); 29% had normal ABI, 54% had PAD, and 17% had PCA. During follow-up (mean duration 5.8 ± 3.1 years), 4,365 patients (26%) died. The percent alive at the end of the study period was 88%, 70%, and 60% for normal ABI, PAD, and PCA, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, comorbid conditions, and medication use, the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of death associated with PCA were 2.0 (1.8 to 2.2) and 1.3 (1.2 to 1.4) compared with the normal ABI and PAD groups, respectively.
Conclusions Patients identified by noninvasive vascular testing to have poorly compressible leg arteries have poor survival, worse than those with a normal ABI or those with PAD.
Dr. Arain was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Vascular Medicine Training Program K12 grant (HL083797). Dr. Kullo was supported by NIH grants HL75794 and HL81331. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received April 13, 2011.
- Revision received September 23, 2011.
- Accepted September 27, 2011.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation