Author + information
- Received January 30, 2012
- Revision received March 7, 2012
- Accepted April 1, 2012
- Published online December 4, 2012.
- ↵⁎Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Stavros Apostolakis, ASCOT Centre, City Hospital, Birmingham B18 7QH, United Kingdom
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased risk for stroke and systemic embolism. There is plausible evidence linking inflammation to the initiation and perpetuation of AF and AF-related thrombosis. Various inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-2, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8) have been associated with AF. Proposed mechanisms linking inflammation and the prothrombotic AF state include endothelial activation/damage, production of tissue factor from monocytes, increased platelet activation, and increased expression of fibrinogen. The present review aims to provide an update on the association of inflammation and AF, including the impact of inflammatory markers on clinical presentation and outcome of AF patients.
Drs. Apostolakis and Lip have received research funding and honoraria from various pharmaceutical companies in relation to atrial fibrillation for meetings and educational symposia. Dr. Lip has served as a consultant for Bayer, Astellas, Merck, AstraZeneca, Sanofi, BMS/Pfizer, Daiichi-Sankyo, Biotronik, Portola, and Boehringer Ingelheim; has been on the speaker's bureau for Bayer, BMS/Pfizer, Boehringer Ingelheim, and Sanofi Aventis; is a member of advisory boards and trial steering committees; he was clinical advisor to the UK National NICE Guidelines on Atrial Fibrillation Management; and was on the writing group for the European Society of Cardiology Guidelines on Atrial Fibrillation Management; he is also a panelist on the revised (9th edition) American College of Chest Physicians Guidelines on Antithrombotic Therapy. Dr. Guo has reported that he has no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received January 30, 2012.
- Revision received March 7, 2012.
- Accepted April 1, 2012.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation
- Search Strategy
- Inflammatory Markers and Atrial Fibrillation
- Inflammatory Markers and Clinical Presentation of AF
- Inflammation as a Consequence or Cause of AF?
- Inflammation and AF: A Systemic or Local Phenomenon?
- Does Inflammation Reflect Underlying Disease or AF Per Se?
- Inflammation and AF-Related Thromboembolism
- Inflammation and AF: A New Therapeutic Target?
- Quo Vadis?