Author + information
- Fernando Tondato,
- Bazzell Jane,
- Linda Schwartz,
- Bruce W. Mc Donald,
- Robert Fisher,
- S. Shawn Anderson and
- Luis Scott
Electronic devices are sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI), which can have significant effects on cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED). Hybrid cars are one of the fastest growing segments in automotive industry. The utilization of the electrical engine is variable in these cars (higher at idle, low speed and transition from high to low speed) and it is a potential source of EMI. Of all CIED, ICDs are typically programmed at higher levels of sensitivity for adequate detection of low amplitude electrograms during VF. Little is known about the in vivo effects of EMI generated by hybrid cars on CIED. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential interference of hybrid cars on implanted ICDs.
We enrolled 30 patients (73±9 yo; 80% male) with stable ICD function, implanted at least 6 mo prior to enrollment (33±23 mo); the 3 major U.S. ICD manufacturers were represented. A 2012 Toyota Prius Hybrid® was used. It was lifted above the ground using a 4-wheel car lift, allowing changes in engine speed (rotation) in a safe environment. EMI was measured (NARDA STS® model EHP-50C) in 6 positions: driver seat, front passenger, right and left back seats, outside at the back and at the front of the car. Each position was evaluated at different speeds: idle, 30 mph, 60 mph and variable speeds of acceleration-deceleration-brake. EMI was expressed in Tesla (magnetic), Volts/meter (electrical) and Hertz (frequency) with 7,800 data points acquired per patient. All patients had their ICD continuously monitored, with focus on real time detection of oversensing.
The levels of EMI generated in all seats and speeds were low and below the threshold recommended by regulatory agencies/manufacturers (highest levels: 19.9 V/m, 0.1 mT and 150 Hz at driver seat). There was no episode of oversensing or inadvertent change in ICD programming after exposure to EMI.
Hybrid cars do not generate clinically relevant amounts of EMI. It is safe for patients with ICD to interact with hybrid cars. This is the first study to address this issue using an in vivo model. Further studies may be necessary to evaluate the interaction between ICDs and other models of hybrid car or exclusive electric cars.
Poster Sessions, Expo North
Saturday, March 09, 2013, 3:45 p.m.-4:30 p.m.
Session Title: Arrhythmias: Devices I – Identification and Avoidance of Complications Associated with Implantable Devices
Abstract Category: 8. Arrhythmias: Devices
Presentation Number: 1149-29
- 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation