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Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory arterial wall disease and T lymphocytes have important role in the pathogenesis and progression of this disease. The aim of this study is determination of vitamin A supplementation effects on gene expression of cytokines secreted by TCD4+ lymphocytes in atherosclerotic patients.
Thirty one atherosclerotic patients and 12 healthy controls participated in this study. Patients were randomly divided into vitamin A receiving group (n=16) and placebo receiving group (n=15), also healthy controls were receiving vitamin A. vitamin A supplement was given as retinyl palmitate and 25000 IU per day. Fasting blood sample of participants were taken before and after 4 months and plasma was separated and stored at -80 0C for biochemical laboratory tests. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were separated and cultured in the appropriate number along with PHA and ox-LDL for proliferation assay and determination of gene expression pattern. As well as RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized from part of the cells at the same time and was stored for Real-Time PCR analysis. After 72 hour incubation cells supernatant were collected and stored at-800C; cells deposited were collected for PNA extraction and cDNA synthesis. After the intervention period the gene expression pattern of relevant cytokines of CD4+ T cells including Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg were determined by Real-Time PCR.
There was significant difference in fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol between three groups of study, before and after intervention. Vitamin A increased proliferation of cells that stimulated with ox-LDL in all groups. Results of this study show that IFN-y and T- bet gene expression in fresh cells in vitamin A-treated patients was decreased. The IL-4 gene expression was increased 12.7 fold in vitamin A-treated patients. IL-17 gene expression in fresh cells of vitamin A-treated patients was diminished. Foxp3 gene expression in fresh cells was increased after intervention in all groups.
vitamin A supplementation had no significant effect on anthropometric factors and effect of this intervention on biochemical factors limited to increase in total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol in both groups of patients and controls but the amounts were in normal value ranges. Vitamin A supplementation could reduce gene expression of IFN-y T-bet in all patients. Increase in gene expression of Th2 cells was seen in all group expect GATA3 gene. According to the results of how the effect of vitamin A on gene expression in atherosclerotic patients, perhaps we thought the positive role of vitamin A supplementation in these patients. Results of this study could pave the way for a more detailed review on effect of vitamin A in patients with immune related diseases.