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In this study, our goal is to estimate the cognitive functions in middle and advanced aged hypertensive patients.
100 hypertensive and 30 normotensive patients between ages 50 and 80 who were admitted to the hospital in March 2013 were enrolled in the study. Patients included in the study had blood pressure higher than 140/90 mmHg. and they were using antihypertensive medicine. Exclusion criteria were dementia, history of cerebrovascular accidents, psychiatric diseases, chronic kidney disease, thyroid disease, B12 and folic acid deficiency, severe anemia, diabetes mellitus and being under medical treatment. Cognitive functions were evaluated with Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) in both the study and control groups. Patients’ information were recorded in Microsoft Excel 2007. Data were transferred to STATA 11 and were analyzed with this statistical program. In univariate analysis, Student’s T test was used for continuous variables, Pearson’s chi-square was used for categorical variables (chi2). In multivariate analysis data were evaluated with logistic regression analysis. The results of p value ≤0.05 was considered significant.
There were 37 male (37%) and 63 female (63%), and 11 male (36.7%) and 19 female (63.3%) and the mean age was 62±14.9 years and 59.4±76.9 years in the study and control groups respectively. There wasn’t a significant difference in gender and age distribution (p>0.05) in the study and the control groups. The mean age of hypertension onset was 55.28 ± 10 years (27-75), the mean duration of hypertension was 7.02±5.98 years (0-25). Mean In all cases, 31 people (23.85%) scored below the cut-off score of 24, and a statistically significant difference was not found between the hypertensive group and the control group (p=0.123).
MMSE scores in the hypertensive group (24.8±0.33) were significantly lower than the control group (26±0.53) (p=0.0146) (Table 1). Sub-components making up the MMSE score, such as orientation and recall scores which were two of five examination areas, was significantly lower in hypertensive group. MMSE orientation parameter were 8.45±016 and 9.1±0.23 in the study and control group respectively (p= 0.0223) (Table 2).
In this study, multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. The effects of age, sex, BMI were analyzed and MMSE scores were compared in study and control groups (orientation, location, registration memory, attention and calculation, recall and language (Table 3).
In conclusion, MMSE scores were lower in hypertensive patients. Mild cognitive impairment and dementia were more common. MMT subgroup parameter orientation and memory loss in patients with hypertension compared to the normotensive persons. There was no difference in saving memory, attention, making calculation, the language parameters between hypertensive and normotensive patients in our study. MMSE should be applied to patients with hypertension.
|MMSE score||Patient number in hypertensive group (n)||Patients number in control group (n)||p|
|26 and >26||54||22|
|Mean MMT score||24.8±0.33||26±0.53||0.0146|
|Comparison MMSE subgroup||Orientation||Record||Atention||Recall||Language|
LR chi2(17) =
Prob > chi2 = Pseudo R2 =
|Z||P>|z|||[95% Conf. Interval]|
|Age: 60-69||-0.7610735 (0.563704||-1,35||0.177||-0.5442969 3.266632|
|Age: 70-80||1.361167 (0.9721935)||1.40 0.161||0.161||-0.5442969 3.266632|
|BMI||0.0926557 (0.0560651)||1.65||0.098||0.0177299 0.2025412|
|MMSE Orientation||-1.022435 (0.3430116)||-2.98||0.003||-1.694726 -0.3501451|
|MMSE Atention and calculation||0.1788862|
|MMSE: Recall||-0.7988862 (0.2960458)||-2.70||0.007||-1.379125 -0.2186472|
|MMSE: Language||0.015115 (0.2953773)||0.01||0.996||-0.5774174 0.5804404|
|_cons||-0015115 (3.428666)||-0.13||0.897||-6.276664 7.163459|