Author + information
- Received February 20, 2013
- Revision received April 20, 2013
- Accepted June 5, 2013
- Published online November 12, 2013.
- Jenna Kay, MD∗,
- Sharmila Dorbala, MD, MPH†,
- Abhinav Goyal, MD, MPH∗,
- Reza Fazel, MD∗,
- Marcelo F. Di Carli, MD†,
- Andrew J. Einstein, MD, PhD‡,
- Robert S. Beanlands, MD§,
- Michael E. Merhige, MD‖,
- Brent A. Williams, PhD¶,
- Emir Veledar, PhD∗,
- Benjamin J.W. Chow, MD§,
- James K. Min, MD#,
- Daniel S. Berman, MD∗∗,
- Sana Shah, MD∗,
- Naveen Bellam, MD∗,
- Javed Butler, MD, MPH∗ and
- Leslee J. Shaw, PhD∗∗ ()
- ∗Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia
- †Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
- ‡Division of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York
- §Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
- ‖Niagara Falls Memorial Medical Center, Buffalo, New York
- ¶Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, Pennsylvania
- #Department of Radiology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California
- ∗∗Department of Imaging, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California
- ↵∗Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Leslee J. Shaw, Emory Clinical Cardiovascular Research Institute, Room 529, 1462 Clifton Road NE, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30324.
Objectives The aim of the current analysis was to compare sex differences in the prognostic accuracy of stress myocardial perfusion rubidum-82 (Rb-82) positron emission tomography (PET).
Background The diagnostic evaluation of women presenting with suspected cardiac symptoms is challenging with reported reduced accuracy, attenuation artifact, and more recent concerns regarding radiation safety. Stress myocardial perfusion Rb-82 PET is a diagnostic alternative with improved image quality and radiation dosimetry. Currently, the prognostic accuracy of stress Rb-82 PET in women has not been established.
Methods A total of 6,037 women and men were enrolled in the PET Prognosis Multicenter Registry. Patients were followed for the occurrence of coronary artery disease (CAD) mortality, with a median follow-up of 2.2 years. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to estimate CAD mortality. The net re-classification improvement index (NRI) was calculated.
Results The 5-year CAD mortality was 3.7% for women and 6.0% for men (p < 0.0001). Unadjusted CAD mortality ranged from 0.9% to 12.9% for women (p < 0.0001) and from 1.5% to 17.4% for men (p < 0.0001) for 0% to ≥15% abnormal myocardium at stress. In multivariable models, the percentage of abnormal stress myocardium was independently predictive of CAD mortality in women and men. An interaction term of sex by the percentage of abnormal stress myocardium was nonsignificant (p = 0.39). The categorical NRI when Rb-82 PET data was added to a clinical risk model was 0.12 for women and 0.17 for men. Only 2 cardiac deaths were reported in women <55 years of age; accordingly the percentage of abnormal myocardium at stress was of borderline significance (p = 0.063), but it was highly significant for women ≥55 years of age (p < 0.0001), with an increased NRI of 0.21 (95% confidence interval: 0.09 to 0.34), including 17% of CAD deaths and 3.9% of CAD survivors that were correctly re-classified in this older female subset.
Conclusions Stress Rb-82 PET provides significant and clinically meaningful effective risk stratification of women and men, supporting this modality as an alternative to comparative imaging modalities. Rb-82 PET findings were particularly helpful at identifying high-risk, older women.
Dr. Dorbala has received an unrestricted grant from Astellas Pharma Global Development. Dr. Di Carli has received a research grant from Toshiba. Dr. Einstein has received grants from GE Healthcare, Philips Medical Systems, and Spectrum Dynamics. Dr. Beanlands has received a grant from Lantheus and Nordion; and has worked as a consultant for Lantheus and DraxImage. Dr. Merhige is the Medical Director at Positron Corp., and has stock options in the company. This work was supported by a grant from Bracco Diagnostics, Inc. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received February 20, 2013.
- Revision received April 20, 2013.
- Accepted June 5, 2013.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation