|First Author (Ref. #)||Model||Mediating Factor||Study Design||Study Finding|
|Capoccia et al. (65)||Mouse||MCP-1||Direct injection of bone marrow cells into blood of surgically induced hind limb ischemia. Adductor hind leg muscle was then subjected to flow cytometry, ELISA, and immunofluorescence. Bone marrow cells were also harvested and transplanted into wild-type mice.||Inflammatory subset of monocytes was selectively recruited to the site of insult in parallel with increased MCP-1 amounts. Two waves of monocyte proliferation were demonstrated in the presence of angiogenesis and inflammation.|
|Arras et al. (102)||Rabbit||TNF, bFGF||Femoral artery occlusion of rabbit hind limb for 3 and 7 days, with randomly given lipopolysaccharide. Further control animals were tested at 21 days for comparison. Carotid artery catheters were also placed for proliferation analysis.||After day 7 of induced hypoxia, maximal macrophage proliferation was present being associated with higher TNF and bFGF levels. Monocytes/macrophage activation played important role in angiogenesis and vessel growth in the presence of hypoxia.|
|Hong et al. (30)||Rat, chick||MCP-1, VEGF||Thoracic and abdominal aortas were obtained from 5-week-old rats. VEGF was analyzed by mRNA expression using PCR. MCP-1 was analyzed in vivo using chick chorioallantoic membrane.||Monocytes were implicated in angiogenesis in MCP-1–mediated manner and related to HIF and VEGFA up-regulation.|
|Cursiefen et al. (103)||Mouse||VEGF||Mouse model of suture induced inflammatory corneal neovascularization. Immunochemistry and morphometry were used to analyze angiogenesis in the cornea.||VEGF mediates the recruitment of monocytes/macrophages resulting in the initiation of neovascularization in the presence of inflammation but also amplifies the pathological process of both angiogenesis.|
|Eubank et al. (104)||Human||M-CSF, VEGF||Isolated human monocytes were stimulated with M-CSF. ELISA was used for VEGF analysis.||M-CSF enhanced production of VEGF and angiogenesis by human monocytes.|
|Venneri et al. (58)||Human||Tie2||Healthy blood donors and surgically resected tumor tissue. Analysis performed using flow cytometry, western-blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, and migration assays.||Tie2+ monocytes were associated with angiogenesis.|
Ang-2 = angiopoietin; bFGF = basic fibroblast factor; EC = endothelial cell; ELISA = enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay; HIF = hypoxia inducible factor; M-CSF = macrophage colony-stimulating factor; MCP = monocyte chemotactic protein; PCR = polymerase chain reaction; Tie2 = tyrosine kinase; VEGF = vascular endothelial growth factor.