Author + information
- Received October 9, 2013
- Revision received December 17, 2013
- Accepted January 6, 2014
- Published online April 15, 2014.
- Carl J. Lavie, MD∗,†∗ (, )
- Paul A. McAuley, PhD‡,
- Timothy S. Church, MD, PhD†,
- Richard V. Milani, MD∗ and
- Steven N. Blair, PED§
- ∗Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, John Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute, Ochsner Clinical School–University of Queensland School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana
- †Department of Preventive Medicine, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, Louisiana
- ‡Department of Human Performance and Sport Sciences, Winston-Salem State University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina
- §Department of Exercise Science and Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina
- ↵∗Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Carl J. Lavie, John Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute, Ochsner Clinical School–The University of Queensland School of Medicine, 1514 Jefferson Highway, New Orleans, Louisiana 70121-2483.
Obesity has been increasing in epidemic proportions, with a disproportionately higher increase in morbid or class III obesity, and obesity adversely affects cardiovascular (CV) hemodynamics, structure, and function, as well as increases the prevalence of most CV diseases. Progressive declines in physical activity over 5 decades have occurred and have primarily caused the obesity epidemic. Despite the potential adverse impact of overweight and obesity, recent epidemiological data have demonstrated an association of mild obesity and, particularly, overweight on improved survival. We review in detail the obesity paradox in CV diseases where overweight and at least mildly obese patients with most CV diseases seem to have a better prognosis than do their leaner counterparts. The implications of cardiorespiratory fitness with prognosis are discussed, along with the joint impact of fitness and adiposity on the obesity paradox. Finally, in light of the obesity paradox, the potential value of purposeful weight loss and increased physical activity to affect levels of fitness is reviewed.
Dr. Lavie has served as a consultant and speaker on fitness/obesity for the Coca-Cola Company; and is publishing a book on the obesity paradox with potential royalties. Drs. Church and Blair have served as consultants for weight loss and fitness companies and for the Coca-Cola Company, which has also provided them un-restricted research grants. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received October 9, 2013.
- Revision received December 17, 2013.
- Accepted January 6, 2014.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation