Author + information
- Received October 21, 2013
- Revision received December 12, 2013
- Accepted January 7, 2014
- Published online April 15, 2014.
- Guilherme F. Attizzani, MD∗,†,‡,
- Davide Capodanno, MD, PhD∗,§∗ (, )
- Yohei Ohno, MD∗ and
- Corrado Tamburino, MD, PhD∗,§
- ∗Division of Cardiology, Ferrarotto Hospital, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
- †Division of Interventional Cardiology, Pitangueiras Hospital, Jundiaí, SP, Brazil
- ‡Harrington Heart and Vascular Institute, University Hospitals, Case Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio
- §Excellence Through Newest Advances (ETNA) Foundation, Catania, Italy
- ↵∗Reprints and correspondence:
Dr. Davide Capodanno, Department of Cardiology, Ferrarotto Hospital, University of Catania, Via Citelli 1, 95100 Catania, Italy.
Incomplete stent apposition (ISA) is characterized by the lack of contact of at least 1 stent strut with the vessel wall in a segment not overlying a side branch; it is more commonly found in drug-eluting stents than bare-metal stents. The accurate diagnosis of ISA, initially only possible with intravascular ultrasound, can currently be performed with higher accuracy by optical coherence tomography, which also enables strut-level assessment due to its higher axial resolution. Different circumstances related both to the index procedure and to vascular healing might influence ISA occurrence. Although several histopathology and clinical studies linked ISA to stent thrombosis, potential selection bias precluded definitive conclusions. Initial studies usually performed single time point assessments comparing overall ISA percentage and magnitude in different groups (i.e., stent type), thus hampering a comprehensive understanding of its relationship with vascular healing. Serial intravascular imaging studies that evaluated vascular response heterogeneity recently helped fill this gap. Some particular clinical scenarios such as acute coronary syndromes, bifurcations, tapered vessels, overlapping stents, and chronic total occlusions might predispose to ISA. Interventional cardiologists should be committed to optimal stent choices and techniques of implantation and use intravascular imaging guidance when appropriate to aim at minimizing acute ISA. In addition, the active search for new stent platforms that could accommodate vessel remodeling over time (i.e., self-expandable stents) and for new polymers and/or eluting drugs that could induce less inflammation (hence, less positive remodeling) could ultimately reduce the occurrence of ISA and its potentially harmful consequences.
- drug-eluting stent(s)
- incomplete stent apposition
- intravascular ultrasound
- optical coherence tomography
- percutaneous coronary intervention
- stent malapposition
Dr. Attizzani has received consultant fees from St. Jude Medical, Inc. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received October 21, 2013.
- Revision received December 12, 2013.
- Accepted January 7, 2014.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation
- Incomplete Stent Apposition and Potential Relationship With Adverse Clinical Outcomes
- Histopathology Investigations
- Fundamental Differences Between IVUS and OCT in ISA Interpretation
- Study Designs and Endpoints
- Incomplete Stent Apposition in Different Clinical Scenarios
- Potential Alternatives to Reduce ISA in Daily Clinical Practice