|Study, Year (Ref. #)||Population (N)||Reperfusion Strategy||Treatment||Primary Endpoint (Follow-Up)||Results||Observations|
|VCU-ART, 2010 (82)||STEMI (10)||PCI||Anakinra (IL-1Ra) for 14 days||Ventricular remodeling as ΔLVESVI on cardiac MRI (3 months)||Placebo: +2 ml/m2 vs. anakinra: −3.2 ml/m2 (p = 0.033)||ΔCRP correlated with remodeling (r2 = 0.71, p = 0.02); more events in the placebo group|
|VCU-ART2, 2013 (83)||STEMI (30)||PCI||Anakinra (IL-1Ra) for 14 days||Ventricular remodeling as ΔLVESVI on cardiac MRI (3 months)||Placebo: +1.0 ml/m2 vs. anakinra: +1.4 ml/m2 (p = 0.8)||VCU-ART and VCU-ART2 combined events showed reduction in HF with anakirna (30% vs. 5%, p = 0.035)|
|Padfield GJ et al, 2013 (108)||NSTEMI at day 3 (26)||NS||Etarnecept (TNF-α blocker)||Leukocytes, cytokines, platelet activation, endothelial dysfunction and fibrinolysis (24 h)||Reduced neutrophil count and IL-6 but increased platelet-monocyte aggregation||No effect on endothelial and fibrinolytic functions|
ΔCRP = change in C-reactive protein level; HF = heart failure; HR = hazard ratio; IL = interleukin; IL-1Ra = interleukin-1 receptor antagonist; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction; ΔLVESVI = change in left ventricular end-systolic volume index; LVESVI = left ventricle end-systolic volume index; MRI = magnetic resonance imaging; NYHA = New York Heart Association; TNF = tumor necrosis factor; NS = not specified; other abbreviations as in Table 1.