|Secondary Cause||Elevated LDL-C||Elevated Triglycerides|
|Diet||Saturated or trans fats, weight gain, anorexia nervosa||Weight gain, very-low-fat diets, high intake of refined carbohydrates, excessive alcohol intake|
|Drugs||Diuretics, cyclosporine, glucocorticoids, amiodarone||Oral estrogens, glucocorticoids, bile acid sequestrants, protease inhibitors, retinoic acid, anabolic steroids, sirolimus, raloxifene, tamoxifen, beta blockers (not carvedilol), thiazides|
|Diseases||Biliary obstruction, nephrotic syndrome||Nephrotic syndrome, chronic renal failure, lipodystrophies|
|Disorders and altered states of metabolism||Hypothyroidism, obesity, pregnancy∗||Diabetes (poorly controlled), hypothyroidism, obesity; pregnancy∗|
Adapted with permission from Stone et al (80).
LDL-C indicates low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
↵∗ Cholesterol and triglycerides rise progressively throughout pregnancy (80); treatment with statins, niacin, and ezetimibe are contraindicated during pregnancy and lactation.