|Endothelium||VCAM-1 transcription and expression|
|Increased permeability facilitates VLDL remnant uptake|
|Blood||Lipolytic products (oxidized fatty acids)|
|ROS-mediated AP-1 up-regulation of IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, VEGF, and PPAR-gamma|
|Intestinal microflora||LPS transport into blood via dietary lipids|
AP = activator protein; IL = interleukin; LPS = lipopolysaccharide; PPAR = peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor; ROS = reactive oxygen species; TGRL = triglyceride-rich lipoprotein; VCAM = vascular cell adhesion molecule; VEGF = vascular endothelial cell growth factor; VLDL = very low-density lipoprotein.