Author + information
- Received March 28, 2014
- Revision received April 28, 2014
- Accepted April 30, 2014
- Published online August 5, 2014.
- Duck-chul Lee, PhD∗∗ (, )
- Russell R. Pate, PhD†,
- Carl J. Lavie, MD‡,§,
- Xuemei Sui, MD, PhD†,
- Timothy S. Church, MD, PhD§ and
- Steven N. Blair, PED‖
- ∗Department of Kinesiology, College of Human Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa
- †Department of Exercise Science, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina
- ‡Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, John Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute, Ochsner Clinical School, University of Queensland School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana
- §Department of Preventive Medicine Research, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, Louisiana
- ‖Department of Exercise Science and Department of Epidemiology/Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina
- ↵∗Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Duck-chul Lee, Department of Kinesiology, College of Human Sciences, Iowa State University, 251 Forker Building, Ames, Iowa 50011.
Background Although running is a popular leisure-time physical activity, little is known about the long-term effects of running on mortality. The dose-response relations between running, as well as the change in running behaviors over time, and mortality remain uncertain.
Objectives We examined the associations of running with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risks in 55,137 adults, 18 to 100 years of age (mean age 44 years).
Methods Running was assessed on a medical history questionnaire by leisure-time activity.
Results During a mean follow-up of 15 years, 3,413 all-cause and 1,217 cardiovascular deaths occurred. Approximately 24% of adults participated in running in this population. Compared with nonrunners, runners had 30% and 45% lower adjusted risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively, with a 3-year life expectancy benefit. In dose-response analyses, the mortality benefits in runners were similar across quintiles of running time, distance, frequency, amount, and speed, compared with nonrunners. Weekly running even <51 min, <6 miles, 1 to 2 times, <506 metabolic equivalent-minutes, or <6 miles/h was sufficient to reduce risk of mortality, compared with not running. In the analyses of change in running behaviors and mortality, persistent runners had the most significant benefits, with 29% and 50% lower risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively, compared with never-runners.
Conclusions Running, even 5 to 10 min/day and at slow speeds <6 miles/h, is associated with markedly reduced risks of death from all causes and cardiovascular disease. This study may motivate healthy but sedentary individuals to begin and continue running for substantial and attainable mortality benefits.
- all-cause mortality
- cardiovascular mortality
- dose response
- physical exercise
- running pattern
This study was supported by the National Institutes of Healthhttp://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000002 (grants AG06945, HL62508, and DK088195) and an unrestricted research grant from the Coca-Cola Company. Dr. Blair has served on advisory boards for Technogym, Clarity, and Santech; and has received research grants from the Coca-Cola Company, Technogym, and BodyMedia. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received March 28, 2014.
- Revision received April 28, 2014.
- Accepted April 30, 2014.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation