Author + information
- Received July 30, 2014
- Revision received September 15, 2014
- Accepted October 2, 2014
- Published online January 27, 2015.
- Wojciech Kosmala, MD, PhD∗,†,
- Christine L. Jellis, MD, PhD‡ and
- Thomas H. Marwick, MBBS, PhD, MPH†∗ ()
- ∗Cardiology Department, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland
- †Menzies Medical Research Institute, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia
- ‡Heart & Vascular Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio
- ↵∗Reprint requests and correspondence:
Prof. Thomas H. Marwick, Menzies Medical Research Institute, University of Tasmania, 17 Liverpool Street, Private Bag 23, Hobart 7000, Australia.
Background Stage B heart failure (SBHF) describes asymptomatic ventricular disease that may presage the development of heart failure (HF) symptoms. This entity has been largely defined by structural changes; the roles of sensitive indicators of nonischemic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, such as LV strain, are undefined.
Objectives This study sought to define the association of exercise capacity with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and systolic/diastolic dysfunction in asymptomatic patients with HF risk factors.
Methods We used echocardiography to study 510 asymptomatic patients (age 58 ± 12 years) with type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or obesity. The results of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with structural evidence of SBHF were compared with those in patients with subclinical dysfunction, defined by reduced LV strain (>−18%) or increased LV filling pressure (E/e′ >13).
Results Compared with healthy subjects, groups with LV abnormalities differed in terms of oxygen uptake (peak VO2): 25.5 ± 8.2 versus 21.0 ± 8.2 for strain >−18% (p < 0.001); 26.4 ± 8.0 versus 19.0 ± 7.2 for E/e′ >13 (p < 0.0001); and 26.0 ± 7.7 versus 15.9 ± 6.9 ml/kg/min for LVH (p < 0.0001). SBHF, defined as ≥1 imaging variable present, was associated with lower peak VO2 (beta = −0.20; p < 0.0001) and metabolic equivalents (beta = −0.21; p < 0.0001), independent of higher body mass index and insulin resistance, older age, male sex, and treatment with beta-blockers.
Conclusions LVH, elevated LV filling pressure, and abnormal myocardial deformation were independently associated with impaired exercise capacity. Including functional markers may improve identification of SBHF in nonischemic heart disease.
This study was funded in part by a grant from the Royal Hobart Hospital Foundation, Hobart, Australia. Prof. Marwick has received grants from General Electric Medical Systems and Siemens. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose. Harvey D. White, MB, CHB, DSc, served as Guest Editor for this paper.
- Received July 30, 2014.
- Revision received September 15, 2014.
- Accepted October 2, 2014.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation