Author + information
- Received July 14, 2015
- Revision received September 6, 2015
- Accepted September 28, 2015
- Published online December 8, 2015.
- Cynthia A. Binanay, MA, BSN∗,†,
- Constantine O. Akwanalo, MBChB, MMed‡,
- Wilson Aruasa, MBChB, MMed‡,
- Felix A. Barasa, MBChB, MMed‡,
- G. Ralph Corey, MD∗,†,§,‖,
- Susie Crowe, PharmD¶,
- Fabian Esamai, MBChB, MMed, PhD, MPH#,
- Robert Einterz, MD∗∗,
- Michael C. Foster, RCS§,
- Adrian Gardner, MD, MPH∗∗,
- John Kibosia, MBChB, MMed‡,
- Sylvester Kimaiyo, MBChB, MMed‡,#,
- Myra Koech, MBChB, MMed‡,
- Belinda Korir, BSN†,
- John E. Lawrence, MD†,§,
- Stephanie Lukas, PharmD, MPH¶,
- Imran Manji, BPharm‡,
- Peris Maritim, KRCHN‡,
- Francis Ogaro, MBChB, MMed‡,
- Peter Park, MBA†∗∗,
- Sonak D. Pastakia, PharmD, MPH¶,
- Wilson Sugut, MBChB, MMed‡,
- Rajesh Vedanthan, MD, MPH††,
- Reuben Yanoh, RCO, RCS, BSc‡,
- Eric J. Velazquez, MD∗,§,‖ and
- Gerald S. Bloomfield, MD, MPH∗,§,‖∗ ()
- ∗Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina
- †Hubert Yeargan Center for Global Health, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina
- ‡Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Eldoret, Kenya
- §Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina
- ‖Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina
- ¶Purdue University College of Pharmacy, West Lafayette, Indiana
- #College of Health Sciences, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya
- ∗∗Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana
- ††Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York
- ↵∗Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Gerald S. Bloomfield, Duke Clinical Research Institute, 2400 Pratt Street, Durham, North Carolina 27705.
Cardiovascular disease deaths are increasing in low- and middle-income countries and are exacerbated by health care systems that are ill-equipped to manage chronic diseases. Global health partnerships, which have stemmed the tide of infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries, can be similarly applied to address cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we present the experiences of an academic partnership between North American and Kenyan medical centers to improve cardiovascular health in a national public referral hospital. We highlight our stepwise approach to developing sustainable cardiovascular services using the health system strengthening World Health Organization Framework for Action. The building blocks of this framework (leadership and governance, health workforce, health service delivery, health financing, access to essential medicines, and health information system) guided our comprehensive and sustainable approach to delivering subspecialty care in a resource-limited setting. Our experiences may guide the development of similar collaborations in other settings.
This work was funded by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute contract #HHSN268200900031C, the Hock Family Foundation, the Hubert Yeargan Center for Global Health, the Ruth Lilly Foundation, and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/Fogarty International Center grant #K01TW008407. Dr. Vedanthan is supported by the Fogarty International Center of the National Institutes of Health (K01TW009218). All authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose. P.K. Shah served as Guest Editor for this paper.
- Received July 14, 2015.
- Revision received September 6, 2015.
- Accepted September 28, 2015.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation
- Prologue: Cardiovascular Care Services in Western Kenya, Circa 2008
- The Spark: Academic Model Providing Access to Health Care Consortium and the NHLBI’s Global Health Initiative
- Warming Up: Ensuring a Shared Vision
- The Road Map: A Model for Development of Cardiovascular Care
- Experience to Date
- Lessons Learned: Challenges, Opportunities, and Future Directions