Author + information
- Received November 12, 2015
- Revision received January 20, 2016
- Accepted January 22, 2016
- Published online April 5, 2016.
- Kazuomi Kario, MDa,∗ (, )
- Ikuo Saito, MDb,
- Toshio Kushiro, MDc,
- Satoshi Teramukai, PhDd,
- Yasuhiro Tomono, MSe,
- Yasuyuki Okuda, MSe and
- Kazuyuki Shimada, MDf
- aDivision of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Tochigi, Japan
- bKeio University, Kanagawa, Japan
- cThe Life Planning Center Foundation, Tokyo, Japan
- dDepartment of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan
- eDaiichi-Sankyo Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan
- fShin-Oyama City Hospital, Oyama, Japan
- ↵∗Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Kazuomi Kario, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, 3311-1, Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi 329-0498, Japan.
Background Few studies have evaluated out-of-office blood pressure (BP) measurements as predictors of coronary artery disease (CAD) events.
Objectives The aim of this study was to determine morning home blood pressure (HBP) as a predictor of CAD events.
Methods Using data from the HONEST (Home blood pressure measurement with Olmesartan Naive patients to Establish Standard Target blood pressure) study, we investigated the relationship between morning HBP and incidence of stroke and CAD events.
Results In 21,591 treated hypertensive patients (mean age 64.9 years; mean follow-up 2.02 years), 127 stroke events (2.92 per 1,000 patient-years), and 121 CAD events (2.78 per 1,000 patient-years) occurred. The incidence of stroke events was significantly higher in patients with morning home systolic blood pressure (HSBP) ≥145 mm Hg compared with <125 mm Hg, and in patients with clinic systolic blood pressure (CSBP) ≥150 mm Hg compared with <130 mm Hg. Hazard ratios (HRs) were 6.01 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.85 to 12.68) between patients with morning HSBP ≥155 mm Hg and those with morning HSBP <125 mm Hg and 5.82 (95% CI: 3.17 to 10.67) between patients with CSBP ≥160 mm Hg and those with CSBP <130 mm Hg; morning HSBP predicted stroke events similarly to CSBP. Incidence of CAD events was significantly higher in patients with morning HSBP ≥145 mm Hg compared with <125 mm Hg and in patients with CSBP ≥160 mm Hg compared with <130 mm Hg. The HR for morning HSBP ≥155 mm Hg was 6.24 (95% CI: 2.82 to 13.84) and for CSBP ≥160 mm Hg was 3.51 (95% CI: 1.71 to 7.20); therefore, compared with morning HSBP, CSBP may underestimate CAD risk. Goodness-of-fit analysis showed that morning HSBP predicted CAD events more strongly than CSBP.
Conclusions Morning HBP is a strong predictor of future CAD and stroke events, and may be superior to clinic BP in this regard. There does not appear to be a J-curve in the relationship between morning HBP and stroke or CAD events. (Home blood pressure measurement with Olmesartan Naive patients to Establish Standard Target blood pressure Study [HONEST]; UMIN000002567)
This study was supported by funding from Daiichi-Sankyo Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, Japan). Statistical analyses were done by EPS Corporation under the direction of the sponsor and the authors. Medical editorial assistance was provided by Nature Japan KK (Macmillan Medical Communications) and funded by Daiichi-Sankyo Co., Ltd. Drs. Kario, Saito, Kushiro, Teramukai, and Shimada have received honoraria from Daiichi-Sankyo Co., Ltd. Mr. Tomono and Mr. Okuda are employees of Daiichi-Sankyo Co., Ltd.
- Received November 12, 2015.
- Revision received January 20, 2016.
- Accepted January 22, 2016.
- 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation