Author + information
- Byung Jin Kim,
- Joo Wook Sung,
- Bum Soo Kim and
- Jin Ho Kang
This study was performed to evaluate the relationship of cotinine-verified second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean never-smokers.
Among individuals enrolled in Kangbuk Samsung Health Study (KSHS) and Kangbuk Samsung Cohort Study (KSCS), 85,698 self-reported never-smokers (29,660 men; age 34.6±6.6 years) between 2011 and 2013 who had urinary cotinine measurements were included. Never-smoker was defined from self-reported questionnaire and cotinine-verified SHS was defined as urinary cotinine level above 50 ng/mL.
The prevalence of cotinine-verified SHS was 2.0% and 1.6% in men and women, respectively; the prevalence of MetS was 11.1% in men and 3.6% in women. In both sex, the prevalence of MetS in cotinine-verified SHS group was significantly higher than in cotinine-verified non-exposure group (16.9% vs. 11.0%, p<0.001 for men: 5.1% vs. 3.5%, p=0.025 for women). Cotinine-verified SHS group in both sex had significantly increased frequency and amount of alcoholic drinking compared with non-exposure group (more than 3 times/week: 13.6% vs. 10.0% for men and 15.6% vs. 5.0% for women, daily amount of alcohol drinking[more than 30g/day in men and more than 20 g/day in women]: 15.6% vs. 11.2% for men, 16.7% vs. 5.4% for women). Multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for age, body mass index, daily amount of alcohol drinking, exercise, total cholesterol, creatinine, uric acid, and high-sensitivity C reactive protein showed that cotinine-verified SHS significantly increased the odds ratio (OR) for MetS compared with cotinine-verified non-exposed group in women (OR[95% CI], 1.77[1.18, 2.68], p=0.006), but not in men (1.26[0.94, 1.69], p=0.118). In the results after adjusting for the five components of MetS, cotinine-verified SHS showed a trend toward MetS in women (1.64[0.94, 2.87], p=0.08) but was not associated with MetS in men (1.14[0.78, 1.65], p=0.508).
This study shows that cotinine-verified SHS group had higher prevalence of MetS in both sex but after adjusting for multiple covariates cotinine-verified SHS is associated with MetS only in women.