Author + information
- Received April 3, 2016
- Accepted May 3, 2016
- Published online July 26, 2016.
- aDepartment of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California
- bHeart Institute, Kaplan Medical Center, Rehovot, Hebrew University and Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel
- cDepartment of Cardiology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands
- dUniversity of Toronto Obstetric Medicine and Pregnancy and Heart Disease Program, Toronto Congenital Cardiac Centre for Adults, Mount Sinai Hospital and University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
- ↵∗Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Uri Elkayam, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Southern California School of Medicine, 2020 Zonal Avenue, Room 331, Los Angeles, California 90033-1034.
The incidence of pregnancy in women with cardiovascular disease is rising, primarily due to the increased number of women with congenital heart disease reaching childbearing age and the changing demographics associated with advancing maternal age. Although most cardiac conditions are well tolerated during pregnancy and women can deliver safely with favorable outcomes, there are some cardiac conditions that have significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this paper is to review the available published reports and provide recommendations on the management of women with high-risk cardiovascular conditions during pregnancy.
The authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received April 3, 2016.
- Accepted May 3, 2016.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation