Author + information
- Charlotte Bamberger,
- Andreas Rossmeier,
- Katharina Lechner,
- Liya Wu,
- Elisa Waldmann,
- Renee G. Stark,
- Julia Altenhofer,
- Kerstin Henze and
- Klaus Parhofer
Background: Previous studies indicate a positive association between regular walnut intake and improvement in the plasma lipid profiles. Since it is unclear whether macronutrients replaced by walnuts influence this improvement, we evaluated the effect of the isocaloric replacement of macronutrients (carbohydrates, fat or both) with walnuts on fasting plasma lipid profile.
Methods: We included 194 healthy Caucasian men and postmenopausal women over the age of 50 (134 females and 60 males, age 63±7 y, BMI 25.1±4.0 kg/m2) in a randomized, controlled, prospective, cross-over study. Subjects followed a nut-free Western-type diet during a 4-week run-in period. Thereafter, subjects were randomized to 2 different diet phases, each lasting for 8 weeks (separated by a 4 week wash-out). One group (n=96) first followed a walnut-enriched diet (43 g of shelled walnuts/d) and then switched to a nut-free control diet. The other group (n=98) followed the diets in reverse order. Subjects were also divided into 3 different diet groups in which they were advised to reduce the intake of either carbohydrates (CH, n=62) or fat (F, n=65) or both (Lib, n=67) during walnut diet. Total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein B (apoB) and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) were determined in fasting samples. Associations of parameters with type of macronutrient replacement and sequence of diet intervention were examined using generalized mixed regression models adjusting for relevant covariables (SAS 9.2).
Results: Compared with the control diet, the walnut diet resulted in a significant reduction in TC (walnut vs. control: -8.14±24.12 vs -1.02±22.55 mg/dl; p=0.0025), non-HDL-C (-9.14±20.66 vs -1.29±19.15 mg/dl; p=< 0.0001), LDL-C (-7.18±20.27 vs -1.82±17.94 mg/dl; p=0.0035), TG (-4.52±31.34 vs +4.03±42.8 mg/dl; p=0.0162) and ApoB (-6.56±14.00 vs -0.60±12.48; p=< 0.0001). There was no significant difference between the diet groups. HDL-C, Lp(a) and body weight did not change significantly.
Conclusions: Daily intake of 43 g walnuts over 8 weeks significantly reduced TC, non-HDL-C, LDL-C and apoB, independent of the recommended macronutrient replacement.
Poster Hall, Hall C
Saturday, March 18, 2017, 9:45 a.m.-10:30 a.m.
Session Title: Updates on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease
Abstract Category: 32. Prevention: Clinical
Presentation Number: 1187-057
- 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation