Author + information
- Received October 26, 2016
- Revision received December 15, 2016
- Accepted January 3, 2017
- Published online March 20, 2017.
- Ofer Havakuk, MDa,b,∗ (, )
- Kevin S. King, MDc,
- Luanda Grazette, MDa,
- Andrew J. Yoon, MDa,
- Michael Fong, MDa,
- Noa Bregman, MDd,
- Uri Elkayam, MDa and
- Robert A. Kloner, MD, PhDa,c
- aDepartment of Cardiology, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California
- bDepartment of Cardiology, Tel Aviv Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
- cHuntington Medical Research Institute, Los Angeles, California
- dDepartment of Neurology, Tel Aviv Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
- ↵∗Address for correspondence:
Dr. Ofer Havakuk, Department of Cardiology, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Keck Medical Center of USC, 1510 San Pablo Street, Los Angeles, California 90033.
Heart failure (HF) is a systemic illness with grave implications for bodily functions. The brain, among other vital organs, often suffers insults as a result of HF, and both anatomic and functional brain abnormalities were found in the HF population. This injury was demonstrated across a wide range of clinical conditions and cardiac functions and was shown to affect patients’ outcomes. Although reduced cardiac output and high burden of cardiovascular risk factors are the prevailing explanations for these findings, there are data showing the involvement of neurohormonal, nutritional, and inflammatory mechanisms in this complex process. Here, the authors review the suggested pathophysiology behind brain injury in HF, describe its effect on patients’ outcomes, offer a diagnostic approach, and discuss possible therapeutic options.
Dr. Grazette is a contractor for St. Jude Medical; and a consultant for Edwards Lifesciences. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received October 26, 2016.
- Revision received December 15, 2016.
- Accepted January 3, 2017.
- 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation
- Central Illustration
- Cerebral Blood Flow
- Brain Anatomic and Cognitive Changes
- The Pathophysiology Behind Functional and Anatomic Brain Changes
- Definition of Cardiocerebral Syndrome
- Suggested Therapeutic Options
- Areas of Equipoise and Future Perspectives
- Approach to Cardiocerebral Syndrome