Heart Rate and Rhythm and the Benefit of Beta-Blockers in Patients With Heart Failure
Dipak Kotecha, Marcus D. Flather, Douglas G. Altman, Jane Holmes, Giuseppe Rosano, John Wikstrand, Milton Packer, Andrew J.S. Coats, Luis Manzano, Michael Böhm, Dirk J. van Veldhuisen, Bert Andersson, Hans Wedel, Thomas G. von Lueder, Alan S. Rigby, Åke Hjalmarson, John Kjekshus, John G.F. Cleland and Beta-Blockers in Heart Failure Collaborative Group
Modeling of Heart Rate at Baseline and the Hazard of Death
Hazard ratio for the effect of baseline heart rate on mortality relative to a patient with a heart rate of 80 beats/min, showing a strong positive correlation in (A) sinus rhythm but not in (B) atrial fibrillation. Note that all trials excluded patients with bradycardia at enrollment (Figure 1). HFrEF = heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.