Liver Lymphatic Embolization as Protein-Losing Enteropathy Treatment: Albumin Level Changes
We evaluated the use of lymphangiographic imaging and liver lymphatic embolization as a treatment for protein-losing enteropathy in 8 patients with congenital heart disease. (A) In 3 patients, the changes of the albumin level and symptom improvement were sustained at the time of data collection, following embolization of the liver lymphatic ducts with n-butyl cyanoacrylate glue. In these patients, the embolization was performed more distally and closer to the duodenal wall, compared with other patients in the study. This change in technique can potentially explain this better outcome. (B) In 3 other patients, the improvement of the symptoms and blood albumin level were temporary. In 1 of these patients, the embolization was performed with ethiodized oil and in 2 with n-butyl cyanoacrylate glue. The embolization site was more proximal to the leakage point in this group, compared with the group with sustained response. Further experience is needed to determine long-term outcome of this procedure.