|Research Opportunities||Potential Strategies|
|Understand CVD burden in incarcerated populations, how incarceration affects CVD risk, and how missing the incarcerated population affects research on health disparities.||Gather longitudinal data regarding prevalence of CVD and risk factors in people exposed to the CJ system (e.g., prison, jail, probation, parole, and so on) in a manner that is identical or similar to how information is collected for other national surveys of health for noninstitutionalized populations (e.g., NHANES) by: 1) building on existing surveys conducted through the BJS, focusing on incarcerated and released prisoners with CVD risk factors; 2) adding survey questions on incarceration history and intensity to existing and future national health survey and epidemiological studies; 3) including incarcerated populations in community-based surveys and interventions (which currently exclude incarcerated populations); 4) developing compatible surveys between the CJ system and general population; 5) establishing new prospective epidemiological studies to understand the magnitude and etiology of CVD in populations exposed to the CJ system (e.g., prison, jail, probation, parole, and so on); 6) incorporating health information technology and common standards in data collection to allow data-sharing for research purposes and for providing continuous care; and 7) studying the impact of incarceration on the health of family members, particularly women, who are bearing most of the responsibility for health care.|
|Investigate the challenges to CVD prevention, diagnosis, and intervention in incarcerated and recently released populations, and develop effective models of CVD prevention, diagnosis, and treatment tailored for incarcerated and released populations.||Understand the barriers to conducting research in the CJ population, while continuing to ensure that this vulnerable population is adequately protected by: 1) investigating challenges at CJ system and clinical provider levels to improve health service; and 2) engaging stakeholders, including inmates, staff, and administrators of the CJ system and leveraging existing federal investment to build infrastructure (training, resources, network) and share best practices in research; 3) developing resources and networks to facilitate the interaction of CVD investigators with the CJ system; and 4) developing training program for CVD investigators to learn the CJ health care and health data management system.|
Develop a research program to evaluate the effect of community-based CVD prevention and reduction strategies on cardiovascular health of incarcerated and recently released populations, including evaluation of short- and long-term effects, and continuity of care across the transition; and stimulate CVD research with economic measurements (e.g., cost-effectiveness) and public safety aspects in the incarcerated population to demonstrate potential benefits of CVD prevention/intervention for the CJ system.
|Understand how transition from CJ system to community affects CVD risk and health disparities, and develop strategies to provide continuous care for the recently released population.||Understand the impact of discontinuation of care or change in care model on CVD risk and prevalence, health disparity, and health status of family members.|
Identify barriers to transition care and care models that facilitate the transition
Develop strategic partners (including Housing and Urban Development, Department of Labor, Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and so on) to provide social support that may enhance/facilitate care transition.
Understand how prevention and intervention while incarcerated influence long-term cardiovascular health.
BJS = Bureau of Justice Statistics; CJ = criminal justice; CVD = cardiovascular disease; NHANES = National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.