Author + information
- Received August 13, 1985
- Revision received November 6, 1985
- Accepted November 20, 1985
- Published online April 1, 1986.
- W. Douglas Weaver, MD, FACCa,
- Leonard A. Cobb, MD, FACC,
- Alfred P. Hallstrom, PhD,
- Carol Fahrenbruch, MSPH,
- Michael K. Copass, MD and
- Roberta Ray, MS
- ↵aAddress for reprints: W. Douglas Weaver, MD, Division of Cardiology (ZA-35), Harborview Medical Center, 325 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, Washington 98104.
Survival to hospital discharge was related to the clinical history and emergency care system factors in 285 patients with witnessed cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation. Only the emergency care factors were associated with differences in outcome. Both the period from collapse until initiation of basic life support and the duration of basic life support before delivery of the first defibrillatory shock were shorter in patients who survived compared with those who died (3.6 ± 2.5 versus 6.1 ± 3.3 minutes and 4.3 ± 3.3 versus 7.3 ± 4.2 minutes; p < 0.05).
A linear regression model based on emergency response times for 942 patients discovered in ventricular fibrillation was used to estimate expected survival rates if the first-responding rescuers, in addition to paramedics, had been equipped and trained to defibrillate. Expected survival rates were higher with early defibrillation (38 ± 3%; 95% confidence limits) than the observed rate (28 ± 3%).
Because outcome from cardiac arrest is primarily influenced by delays in providing cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation, factors affecting response time should be carefully examined by all emergency care systems.
This study was supported in part by a grant-in-aid from the American Heart Association, Dallas, Texas, with contributions in part by the American Heart Association of Washington, Seattle and a grant from the Medic I-EMS Foundation, Seattle.
- Received August 13, 1985.
- Revision received November 6, 1985.
- Accepted November 20, 1985.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation