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To investigate Impact of gender differences on Dietary salt intake and Coronary Atherosclerosis in patients with prehypertension.
A retrospective review was performed on 243 prehypertension patients who underwent coronary angiography without percutaneous coronary intervention, which appears the degree of coronary artery stenosis was 30%-70%, in our department from Jan 2003 to Dec 2009 in this study. Based on gender difference, all patients were sorted into male (n=140) and female group (n=103). Compared the baseline clinical features, lab data, the information on drug using during hospitalization and follow up period, related risk factors and incidence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease(including Acute myocardial infarction and Stroke) between the two groups. Adopting Cox regression analysis the related risk factors of hypertension and cardiovascular disease.
Female group had a higher average age(61.30±7.446 vs58.61±7.335, p=0.005), as well as the blood lipids such as total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol were higher than male patient (p<0.05). However, the male patient's average serum creatinine values and Left ventricular diastolic diameter was higher as well as the rate of smoking and drinking history compared to the female patients. After a median follow-up of 4.53years(range,3.1-8.7year),71(50.71%) male patients with progress for hypertension, but women groups have 52(50.49%)patients progress for high blood pressure, there was no statistical difference in the two groups (50.71% vs 50.49%, p>0.05) In terms of cardiovascular diseases, 72 patients experienced acute myocardial infarction, including 52 male patients and 20 female patients, among them the occurring rate of myocardial infarction, male group is higher than female group (37.14%vs 19.42%, p=0.003), while women group the incidence of ischemic stroke than men (11.65% vs 4.28%, p=0.03). In the subgroup of high salt intake dietary, 35 patients in men group happened acute myocardial infarction, only 13 patients in female group occurred it. The incidence of acute myocardial infarction, male group was higher than female (50.72% vs 25.49%, p=0.005). To further explore the risk factors of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, Cox multiple factors regression analysis found that the diet of high salt intake was independent risk factors for hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, especially in male prehypertension (p<0.05).
In prehypertension patients, the diet of high salt intake would increase the incidence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease, especially in which the occurring rate of myocardial infarction in male group is higher than female group, but the incidence of ischemic stroke in women group is larger.