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Many studies showed an association between dietary salt intake, blood pressure and increased CVD risk. The potential reason may be related to vascular structural and functional changes, through alterations in endothelial function. The central retinal arteriolar equivalent and urinary albumin reflected vascular endothelial dysfunction in different part of the body. The urinary sodium-creatinine ratio of causal urine specimens could represent the 24-h urinary sodium intake to estimate sodium intake.
The 24-h sodium excretion was estimated by urinary sodium-creatinine ratio. Urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR), reflecting renal arterial damage, was also determined. The central retinal arteriolar equivalent (CRAE) was detected by fundus photography and was further analyzed by semi-quantitative software.
Participants included 951 hypertensive patients with the average sodium excretion of 11.62 ± 3.01 g. The sodium excretion was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in the hypertensive as compared to that of the non-hypertensive participants. Prevalence of hypertension was increased with increasing sodium excretion. The sodium excretion was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), respectively (r = 0.20 and 0.14; P < 0.01). Furthermore, UACR and CRAE were significantly (P < 0.01) different within the sodium excretion quartiles (Q1-Q4). After adjusting the confounding variables, such as age and sex, the binary logistic regression analysis showed that sodium excretion was an independent factor of UACR and CRAE (P < 0.01).
Our results suggest that sodium excretion in the hypertensive participants were higher. The high sodium excretion was related with the renal arterial damage as well as retinal arteriolar changes.