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Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVDs affect Indian population earlier a decade than their European counterparts in their younger age as Indians show 52% deaths with CVDs before the age of 70 years, while as in western population it is only 23%. Various studies have shown that Indians are at increased risk of myocardial infraction at younger age (< 40 years) whether they are migrant or residents. Objectives of the present research work is to assess the prevalence of various CVDs in Indian population and to understand the association between the enzyme activity and cardiac functions.
A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out for a period of five years (2011-2015) at Bharti hospital, Pune. Bharti hospital receives a heterogeneous patient population both of ethnic and economic status. Clinical history of CVD patients was traced at medical record department (MRD) by selecting appropriate ICD codes. Data were retrieved from Life Line software by applying one ICD code at a time and patient details were selected from first day –last day of that particular year. ICD-10 was followed throughout the study. All the biochemical estimations were performed in pathology department in the hospital and all laboratory test results were extracted from medical records.
All the data were represented as n (%). Males show higher distribution of CVDs in the age group of 41-60 years (37.88%) than in the age group of > 80 (5.1 %), while females have 30.76% distribution of CVDs in the age group of 41-60 years and 4.1 % in the age group of > 80. Females have higher distribution of CVDs in all age groups. Myocardial infraction (MI) is more prevalent in current population than other CVDs. Prevalence of MI in males is 38.79% while in females it is 20.51%. Prevalence of RVHD in males is 3.46%), while in females it is 22.05%. Prevalence of IHD in male is 9.65% while in females it is 10%. Prevalence of Cardiomyopathy in male is 4.55% while in females it is 5.38% during five year time period. MI is highly distributed (40.84%) in the age group of 41-60 years than RVHD (21.69%), IHD (34.4%), and cardiomyopathy (26.9%). MI patients show more other higher levels of non-cardiac complications such as diabetic-mellitus (26.14%), Fatty liver (6.2%), Rheumatic-arthritis (1.3%), megaloblastic anemia (0.65%). Creatinine kinase (CPK) and Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) show a positive correlation in IHD (R2 = 0.3, p< 0.005). Alanine transaminase (ALT) is positively correlated to Interventricular septum diameter in RVHD (R2 = 0.25, p < 0.001).
Conclusions: Myocardial infraction is more prevalent than other cardiac disorders in Indian population. Creatinine kinase (CPK) and Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) are positively correlated in IHD