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Thrombolysis and oxygen (O2) supply in coronary micro-circulation are crucial for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Synergetic potential has been given as the cavitation effect of perfluoropentane (PFP) nanoparticles with ultrasound irradiation for targeted thrombolysis combined with the biochemical reaction of H2O2 in the hydrogen peroxide solution providing O2 in coronary micro-embolization. Therefore, we sought to explore the clinical implication of hydrogen peroxide solution with PFP loaded nanoparticles to develop a novel plan for the treatment of coronary micro- embolization.
Artery thrombosis was collected by carotid artery injury and stasis in 10 rabbits. H2O2/PFP nanoparticles (group A) were tested in an in-vitro vascular system with Low Intensity Focused Ultrasound (LIFU) irradiation, comparing with PFP nanoparticles only (group B) and PBS buffer solution as control (group C). Group A, B and C circulated into the system where the thrombosis was placed in the middle. Thrombolysis ratios and pathological slides were analyzed. Dissolved Oxygen Detector (DOD) inspected the volume of O2 in the vascular system after LIFU exposure.
The mean diameter and charge of the nanoparticles were (432.7± 26.8) nm and (-43.87±3.12) mV, respectively, which showed uniform size and regular shape under the microscope. Sonicated by LIFU, the H2O2/PFP nanoparticles changed phase gradually and transformed into microbubbles (MB). The results showed the highest efficiency of thrombolysis with the irradiation power of 5 w and time of 15 min. The dissolution ratios in group A (42.18±7.4) % was significantly larger than those in group B (29.26±3.2) % and C (7.24±2.63) % (p < 0.05). The pathological changes showed that in group A, a significant decrease of red blood cell in the thrombus was observed, and the structure of platelet were disorganized. Compared with group A, there was still considerable amount of red blood cells inside the thrombus with compact structure of platelet trabeculae in group B and C. The DOD showed that along with the increase of H2O2 concentration, O2 release was rising. For the consideration of biosecurity and efficiency, 5% H2O2 was engaged in with the release of (12.2±0.79) mg/L O2.
H2O2/PFP nanoparticles with LIFU performed thrombolysis and provided O2 in coronary micro-circulation, which may establish a novel non-invasive primary treatment protocol of AMI.