Author + information
- Received July 12, 2017
- Revision received August 29, 2017
- Accepted September 6, 2017
- Published online October 23, 2017.
- Robert W. Yeh, MD, MSca,b,∗ (, )
- Dean J. Kereiakes, MDc,
- P. Gabriel Steg, MDd,e,f,
- Donald E. Cutlip, MDa,b,
- Kevin J. Croce, MD, PhDg,
- Joseph M. Massaro, PhDb,h,
- Laura Mauri, MD, MScb,g,
- on behalf of the DAPT Study Investigators
- aRichard A. and Susan F. Smith Center for Outcomes Research in Cardiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts
- bBaim Institute for Clinical Research, Boston, Massachusetts
- cChrist Hospital Heart and Vascular Center and the Lindner Center for Research and Education, Cincinnati, Ohio
- dUniversité Paris-Diderot, INSERM U-1148, Paris, France
- eHôpital Bichat, Département Hospitalo-Universitaire FIRE, Assistance Publique–Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France
- fNHLI, Imperial College, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, United Kingdom
- gBrigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
- hBoston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts
- ↵∗Address for correspondence:
Dr. Robert W. Yeh, Richard A. and Susan F. Smith Center for Outcomes Research in Cardiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 375 Longwood Avenue, 4th Floor, Boston, Massachusetts 02215.
Background Subjects undergoing coronary stenting with complex lesion anatomy may experience different risks and benefits with prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy.
Objectives The authors assessed the effect of 30 months versus 12 months of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) based on the presence or absence of anatomically-complex target lesions.
Methods In the DAPT Study, combined myocardial infarction (MI) or stent thrombosis and moderate/severe bleeding were assessed in enrolled (n = 25,416) and randomized (n = 11,554) subjects. Complex lesions had any of the following characteristics: unprotected left main, >2 lesions/vessel, length ≥30 mm, bifurcation with side branch ≥2.5 mm, vein bypass graft, or thrombus-containing lesion. Events were evaluated according to increasing number of complexity characteristics and compared according to DAPT score.
Results Enrolled subjects with more complex target lesions had higher rates of MI or stent thrombosis in the first 12 months after PCI (3.9% vs. 2.4%; p < 0.001). Among those who were event-free at 12 months, rates of MI or stent thrombosis between 12 and 30 months were similar between those with versus without complex anatomy (3.5% vs. 2.9%; p = 0.07). Reduction of MI or stent thrombosis with continued thienopyridine beyond 12 months versus placebo was similar for subjects with (2.5% vs. 4.5%; hazard ratio: 0.55; 95% confidence interval: 0.38 to 0.79; p = 0.001) and without (2.0% vs. 3.8%; hazard ratio: 0.52; 95% confidence interval: 0.39 to 0.69; p < 0.001) anatomic complexity (pinteraction = 0.81), as was increase in moderate/severe bleeding (pinteraction = 0.44). Among subjects with anatomic complexity, those with DAPT scores ≥2 randomized to continued thienopyridine had greater reductions in MI or stent thrombosis (3.0% vs. 6.1%; p < 0.001) compared with subjects with scores <2 (1.7% vs. 2.3%; p = 0.42; p value comparing risk differences = 0.03).
Conclusions Complex target-lesion anatomy is associated with increased ischemic events, particularly within the first year after PCI. Among those without events in the first 12 months, the benefits of extending DAPT were similar in subjects with and without complex lesions. A high DAPT score identified those experiencing the most benefit from extended treatment among patients with and without complex anatomy. (The Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Study [DAPT Study]; NCT00977938)
- complex lesions
- dual antiplatelet therapy
- dual antiplatelet therapy score
- percutaneous coronary intervention
The DAPT (Dual Antiplatelet Therapy) Study found that continuing thienopyridine plus aspirin beyond 1 year after coronary stenting was associated with decreased rates of stent thrombosis and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), but increased rates of moderate or severe bleeding compared with aspirin alone (1). The population included over 11,000 randomized patients who were compliant with thienopyridine therapy and who were free from bleeding and ischemic events during the 12-month post-coronary stenting period, during which they received open label thienopyridine plus aspirin. Based on data from this and other studies of DAPT duration, the 2016 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines gave a Class I recommendation for at least 6 months of DAPT post-stenting with drug-eluting stents (DES). The guidelines also emphasized the need to individualize treatment duration, and to consider longer therapy in those patients who are at lower bleeding and potentially higher ischemic risk (2).
Features of coronary anatomical and procedural complexity, such as the number, caliber, and length of lesions treated, as well as pre- and post-procedural flow grades are known risk factors for stent thrombosis (3). In a recent pooled analysis of trials, longer DAPT (≥12 months compared with 3 or 6 months) was found to be more beneficial in patients with complex coronary anatomy, with significant reductions in major adverse cardiac events in the complex percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.35 to 0.89) versus the noncomplex group (adjusted HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.75 to 1.35; pinteraction = 0.01) (4). We sought to examine the relationship between anatomical/procedural complexity and optimal duration of DAPT among those patients reaching 1 year without an ischemic or bleeding event in the DAPT Study, the largest randomized trial comparing thienopyridine duration after PCI.
The DAPT Study, as previously described (1,5), was a double-blind, international, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that compared the benefits and risks of 30 months versus 12 months of thienopyridine therapy (clopidogrel or prasugrel) when prescribed in addition to aspirin following coronary stenting with bare-metal stents (BMS) or DES in subjects who tolerated DAPT for 12 months (NCT00977938). Five individual component studies were incorporated into this single, uniform randomized trial, with enrollment of subjects either by the Baim Institute for Clinical Research (formerly known as the Harvard Clinical Research Institute) or through 1 of 4 post-marketing surveillance studies. The results comparing randomized treatments in DES- (1) and BMS-treated (6,7) cohorts have been reported previously, as have results in various subpopulations of the study (8,9).
The institutional review board at each participating institution approved the study. The purpose of the present post hoc analysis was to examine whether the ischemic benefits and bleeding risks associated with 30 months versus 12 months of DAPT are consistent among subjects presenting with versus without complex coronary lesion anatomy.
Study population and procedures
Briefly, subjects with coronary artery disease who were candidates for DAPT and who received treatment with U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved DES and BMS devices provided written informed consent and were enrolled within 3 days of stent placement. Stent treatment was performed according to site standards of care. DES types included sirolimus-eluting stent (Cypher, Cordis, Milpitas, California), zotarolimus-eluting stent (Endeavor, Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minnesota), paclitaxel-eluting stent (TAXUS, Boston Scientific, Marlborough, Massachusetts), and everolimus-eluting stents (Xience, Abbott Vascular, Abbott Park, Illinois; PROMUS, Boston Scientific).
All subjects received open-label aspirin plus thienopyridine for the first 12 months after stent implantation. In 1 contributing study, all subjects received prasugrel under an Investigational Device Exemption from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration; in the remaining 4 studies, the selection of clopidogrel or prasugrel was left to the discretion of the treating physician. At 12 months, subjects who were treatment compliant (defined as having taken 80% to 120% of thienopyridine therapy without an interruption of longer than 14 days) and had not experienced a MACCE, repeat revascularization, or moderate or severe bleeding were randomized to continued thienopyridine or placebo for an additional 18 months. Both groups continued aspirin therapy.
A computer-generated randomization schedule stratified subjects according to the type of stent they had received (DES vs. BMS), hospital site, thienopyridine type, and presence or absence of at least 1 pre-specified clinical or anatomical characteristic for complexity. At 30 months, subjects discontinued the randomized treatment, remained on aspirin, and were followed for another 3 months.
In this current analysis, we assessed outcomes and treatment effect differences in the subgroups of subjects with and without complex lesion anatomy, using the pre-specified variable in the DAPT Study protocol (randomization stratification variable). A treated lesion was considered anatomically complex if it had any of the following characteristics: unprotected left main, >2 lesions per vessel, lesion length ≥30 mm, bifurcation lesion with side branch ≥ 2.5 mm, vein bypass graft (segment or anastomosis), or thrombus-containing lesion.
For this analysis, the primary ischemic endpoints were the incidence of combined myocardial infarction (MI) or stent thrombosis, according to the Academic Research Consortium definitions (10) and the incidence of MACCE in all randomized subjects at 12 to 30 months post-index procedure. The primary safety endpoint was moderate or severe bleeding at 12 to 30 months, assessed according to the GUSTO (Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Arteries) classification (11). Bleeding was also ascertained according to the BARC (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium) definitions (12).
All endpoint events were adjudicated by an independent Clinical Events Committee blinded to treatment assignment. An unblinded independent central data monitoring committee oversaw the safety of all subjects by reviewing data from all subjects at regular intervals.
The intent of the analysis was to examine whether the presence of anatomical lesion complexity could be used by clinicians to identify patients who are at high risk for events within 0 to 12 months and 12 to 30 months after PCI, and further, whether its presence effectively stratified the magnitude of ischemic benefit for continuation of thienopyridine therapy beyond 12 months. We compared crude proportions of endpoint events between subjects with and without anatomically complex lesions in the 0- to 12-month period among all enrolled patients using the chi-square test. Kaplan-Meier estimates of endpoint events between 12 and 30 months after PCI were compared between randomized subjects with and without anatomically complex lesions using the log-rank test, irrespective of treatment arm. Next, Kaplan-Meier estimates of endpoint events were generated for each treatment group for subjects with and without anatomic complexity. The effects of continued thienopyridine versus placebo for subjects with and without anatomic complexity were assessed using Cox-proportional hazards regression models, and are expressed as HRs and associated 2-sided 95% CIs. The consistency of the treatment effect between subjects with and without anatomic complexity was evaluated through the inclusion of randomized treatment-by-anatomic complexity status interaction terms (multiplicative interaction) in a Cox model. Because clinically meaningful differences in treatment effect can exist on the absolute scale (e.g., number needed to treat) even in the absence of differences in relative treatment effect, we further compared absolute risk differences between randomized treatment groups for those patients with versus without anatomically complex lesions using the Z test (additive interaction). These analyses were repeated, stratifying patients based on the number of anatomic lesion complexity characteristics (0, 1, or 2 or more characteristics). Randomized treatment effect was additionally examined after stratifying patients with and without anatomic lesion complexity by DAPT score (13) in the overall randomized population (DAPT score <2 vs. ≥2). The unadjusted association between individual complexity characteristics and the primary ischemic and bleeding outcomes between 0 to 12 months and 12 to 30 months was assessed using logistic and Cox regression, respectively.
As sensitivity analyses, we repeated these analyses in subgroups of subjects with and without complex lesion anatomy according to a previously published alternative definition of coronary complexity (4), which included any of the following characteristics: 3 vessels treated, ≥3 stents implanted, ≥3 lesions treated, bifurcation with 2 stents implanted, total stent length >60 mm, or chronic total occlusion. In addition, we repeated analyses after: 1) excluding patients who received paclitaxel-eluting stents; and 2) including only everolimus-eluting stents.
All analyses were performed on randomized subjects for whom lesion complexity status was available. All statistical analyses were conducted at the Baim Institute for Clinical Research with the use of SAS software, version 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina). A 2-sided p value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant for all analyses.
Of 25,416 subjects enrolled in the DAPT study and with anatomic lesion complexity information available, 8,381 (33.0%) were found to have complex coronary lesions at the index procedure. Of the 25,416 subjects, 1 year after the index procedure, 4,651 (55.5%) with and 9,211 (54.1%) without anatomic lesion complexity were either not eligible for randomization or were eligible but not randomized, and 3,730 (44.5%) complex and 7,824 (45.9%) noncomplex patients were randomized at 12 months. Of the 8,381 enrolled patients with lesion complexity, 7,044 had 1 complex characteristic and 1,337 had 2 or more characteristics for lesion complexity. Of 3,730 randomized patients with lesion complexity, 3,182 had 1 characteristic and 548 had 2 or more characteristics for lesion complexity. At 30 months, 3,364 (90.2%) complex patients and 7,093 (90.7%) noncomplex patients had clinical follow-up data available (Figure 1).
Randomized subjects with anatomic lesion complexity were younger, more likely to be male, and less likely to have diabetes mellitus and hypertension, but were more likely to be a cigarette smoker, to have previous MI, and to have undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (Table 1).
Outcomes comparing subjects with versus without anatomically complex lesions
When assessing outcomes in enrolled subjects with or without anatomic complexity from 0 to 12 months, subjects with complex anatomy experienced increased rates of MACCE (5.3% vs. 3.5%; p < 0.001) and MI or stent thrombosis (3.9% vs. 2.4%; p < 0.001) compared with patients without complex anatomy, and had no difference in moderate or severe bleeding (2.2% vs. 2.4%; p = 0.40) (Online Table 1).
During the 12- to 30-month period, randomized subjects with or without complex anatomy experienced similar rates of MI or stent thrombosis (3.5% vs. 2.9%, respectively; p = 0.07) and MACCE (5.5% vs. 4.8%, respectively; p = 0.11), as well as similar rates of GUSTO moderate/severe bleeding (1.9% vs. 1.9%; p = 0.91) (Table 2). The individual components comprising the complexity definition were more strongly associated with ischemic events in the 0- to 12-month period, compared with the 12- to 30-month period (Online Tables 2 and 3).
A trend for increasing event rates associated with increasing number of complexity characteristics was seen for ischemic outcomes both at 0 to 12 months after enrollment (enrolled patients: n = 25,416) (Online Table 4) and 12 to 30 months after enrollment (randomized patients: n = 11,554) (Online Table 5). The rates of MI or stent thrombosis increased from 2.4% in patients with 0 complexity characteristics, to 3.4% in patients with 1 complexity characteristic, and to 6.4% in patients with 2 or more complexity characteristics in the 0- to 12-month study period (p value for trend <0.001). The same was true for rates of MI or stent thrombosis in randomized patients in the 12- to 30-month period, with rates of 2.9%, 3.2%, and 5.5% for patients with 0, 1, or 2 or more complexity characteristics, respectively (p value for trend = 0.01).
Consistency of treatment effect of continued thienopyridine in subjects with and without anatomically complex lesions
The relative reduction of MI or stent thrombosis associated with continued thienopyridine was similar for subjects with and without anatomic complexity (pinteraction comparing relative risk reduction = 0.81, p comparing absolute risk differences = 0.75). In subjects with anatomic complexity, the rate of MI or stent thrombosis was 2.5% for continued thienopyridine versus 4.5% for placebo (HR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.38 to 0.79; p = 0.001), whereas for subjects without anatomic complexity, the corresponding rates were 2.0% vs. 3.8%, respectively (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.39 to 0.69; p < 0.001). Similarly, the relative reduction in MACCE was comparable for patients with (4.7% vs. 6.3%; HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.55 to 0.96; p = 0.02) and without anatomic complexity (4.1% vs. 5.5%; HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.60 to 0.91; p = 0.01, pinteraction = 0.88; p comparing absolute risk differences = 0.71) (Table 3, Figure 2). No significant interactions were observed when the population excluded those treated with paclitaxel-eluting stents (Online Table 6), or was limited to only those subjects receiving everolimus-eluting stents (Online Table 7).
For the endpoint of GUSTO moderate/severe bleeding, continued thienopyridine was associated with a similar increase for subjects with anatomic complexity (2.2% vs. 1.6%; HR: 1.41, 95% CI: 0.87 to 2.28; p = 0.16) versus subjects without anatomic complexity (2.5% vs. 1.4%; HR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.27 to 2.50; p < 0.001; pinteraction = 0.44; p comparing risk differences = 0.41).
To assess whether treatment effects differed depending on the number of complexity factors, outcomes were also analyzed comparing randomized treatments among subgroups of subjects with 0 (n = 7,824), 1 (n = 3,182), or 2 or more (n = 548) anatomic complexity characteristics. Relative treatment effects were consistent for the outcomes of MI or stent thrombosis and MACCE independent of the number of complexity characteristics (Central Illustration).
Treatment effect among complex and noncomplex anatomy subjects by DAPT score
Among the 3,730 randomized subjects with anatomic complexity, those with DAPT scores ≥2 (n = 2,267) randomized to continued thienopyridine had greater absolute reductions in MI or stent thrombosis (3.0% for continued thienopyridine vs. 6.1% for placebo; risk difference [RD] −3.1%; 95% CI: −4.9% to −1.3%; p < 0.001) compared with subjects with DAPT scores <2 (n = 1,463; 1.7% for continued thienopyridine vs. 2.3% for placebo; RD −0.6%; 95% CI: −2.1% to 0.9%; p = 0.42; pinteraction = 0.34; p comparing risk differences = 0.03). Patients with DAPT scores ≥2 and with complex lesions also had significantly greater reductions in MACCE after randomization to continued thienopyridine (5.1% for continued thienopyridine vs. 8.4% for placebo; RD −3.3%; 95% CI: −5.4% to −1.2%; p = 0.002) compared with patients with DAPT scores <2 and with complex lesions (4.0% for continued thienopyridine vs. 3.4% for placebo; RD 0.6%, 95% CI: −1.4% to 2.6%; p = 0.56; pinteraction = 0.03; p comparing risk differences = 0.01).
Similar results were observed among subjects without complex anatomy and DAPT scores ≥2, with greater absolute risk reductions in MI or stent thrombosis (pinteraction = 0.11; p comparing risk differences = 0.003) and MACCE (pinteraction = 0.12; p comparing risk differences = 0.03) compared to patients with DAPT scores <2 (Figure 3).
Among subjects with complex anatomy, randomization to continued thienopyridine had a numerically greater increase in GUSTO moderate or severe bleeding among those with DAPT score <2 (3.0% for continued thienopyridine vs. 1.8% for placebo; RD 1.2%; p = 0.12) compared with those with DAPT score ≥2 (1.7% for continued thienopyridine vs. 1.4% for placebo; RD 0.3%; p = 0.61), although the p values comparing risk differences and for interaction were not significant (p = 0.32; pinteraction = 0.46). Similar results were observed for those without complex anatomy (2.9% for continued thienopyridine vs. 1.3% for placebo; RD 1.6%; p < 0.001 for DAPT score <2; 1.9% for continued thienopyridine vs. 1.5% for placebo; RD, 0.4%; p = 0.31 for DAPT score ≥2; pinteraction = 0.14; p comparing risk differences = 0.07).
A sensitivity analysis was performed to determine whether the treatment effect of continued thienopyridine was consistent when anatomic lesion complexity was defined according to an alternative definition (4). Results similar to those seen in the DAPT protocol-classified definition of anatomic complexity analyses were observed, with consistent reductions in MI or stent thrombosis among subjects with and without complex coronary anatomy (pinteraction = 0.66; p value for risk difference = 0.91), MACCE (pinteraction = 0.31; p value for risk difference = 0.35), and GUSTO moderate/severe bleeding (pinteraction = 0.29; p for risk difference = 0.53) (Online Table 8). In addition, no difference in the treatment effect between complex and noncomplex subjects (protocol definition) for ischemic or bleeding events was observed when examining either the 12- to 33-month or 30- to 33-month time periods (Online Table 9).
Among patients enrolled and randomized in the DAPT Study, we found that those undergoing PCI with more complex coronary artery target lesions had a higher rate of subsequent ischemic events, particularly within the first year after PCI, compared with patients without complex lesions. After the first year, this association was attenuated. Consistent with this observation, among patients reaching 1 year after PCI without a major ischemic or bleeding event, the magnitude of ischemic benefit associated with continuing thienopyridine for an additional 18 months was not greater among patients with complex coronary lesion characteristics than those without. Independent of anatomical complexity of the index lesion, those with DAPT scores ≥2 derived greater ischemic reductions with a numerically lesser impact on bleeding than those with DAPT scores <2. These findings suggest that complex target lesion anatomy may be a more useful discriminator for predicting the benefit of DAPT within the first year after PCI, but less useful for predicting benefit of longer durations after 12 months.
These findings may be explained by several hypotheses. First, the majority of ischemic benefit of continued thienopyridine has been found to be due to the reduction in MI in territories distinct from the target lesion that was stented during the index procedure. As such, complex characteristics of the index lesion may not adequately capture a patient’s risk of future ischemic events, particularly in nonstented vessels. Next, patients who sustained an ischemic event within the first 12 months after enrollment were not randomized in the DAPT Study, such that some patients with complex anatomy and high potential benefit of thienopyridine continuation were not randomized. Third, although the DAPT study collected some features of coronary lesion complexity using a pre-specified definition, not all factors defining complex lesion anatomy could be accounted for.
In a pooled analysis of 6 randomized trials assessing long-term (≥12 months) versus short-term (3 or 6 months) DAPT in 9,577 patients undergoing PCI, Giustino et al. (4) found that at median 392 days, the 1,680 patients who underwent complex PCI had a higher risk of major adverse cardiac events (adjusted HR: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.50 to 2.60). Additionally, long-term DAPT (vs. short-term) was associated with reductions in major adverse cardiac events in the complex PCI group (4.1% vs. 6.8%; adjusted HR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.89) compared with the noncomplex group (adjusted HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.75 to 1.35; pinteraction = 0.01), and increased risk for major bleeding that was similar between groups (pinteraction = 0.96). The study also found that the benefit of long-term DAPT increased additively with each increase in procedural complexity.
To assess whether these differences in study findings were due to different definitions for coronary lesion complexity, we performed a sensitivity analysis employing the definition of complexity used in the analysis by Giustino et al. (4). We continued to observe consistent reductions in ischemic events across levels of coronary lesion complexity. The differences observed between studies may be due primarily to the different time intervals examined after initial PCI. Within the 1st year after PCI, it is conceivable that stent- and lesion-related factors have a stronger influence on the potential benefit of continued DAPT, as observed in the prior study. In contrast, some patients at the highest risk of lesions were likely not randomized in the DAPT Study due to the occurrence of early events that were exclusionary, consistent with the high rates of ischemic events we observed within the first year for enrolled patients with complex anatomy. A unifying conclusion from these studies may be that although lesion-related factors may be important for determining which patients might benefit from extending therapy past a minimum period of 3 or 6 months, for those patients reaching 1 year without an ischemic event, patient factors, rather than lesion factors, may become more important in determining expected benefit of thienopyridine continuation.
The 2016 ACC/AHA guideline focused update on duration of DAPT in patients with coronary artery disease (2) recommended a minimum duration of 6 months of DAPT after DES placement, but emphasized the need to individualize therapy on the basis of ischemic and bleeding risk. The DAPT score is a decision tool that stratifies patients on the basis of expected benefit versus harm from extending dual antiplatelet treatment (13,14). In the creation of this score, many candidate variables were considered, including factors related to anatomical complexity: minimum stent diameter, number of stents and total stent length, presence of severe coronary calcification, bifurcation stenting, complex lesion class, and unprotected left main stenting, among others. These factors, however, were ultimately found not to be predictive of events in the 12- to 30-month period and were thus not retained. Among randomized patients with anatomically complex coronary lesions in this analysis, those with DAPT scores ≥2 had significantly greater reductions in MI/stent thrombosis and MACCE compared with those with DAPT scores <2, and similar (and numerically smaller) increases in bleeding. These results suggest that among patients similar to those randomized in the DAPT Study, this score may be a useful decision aid, even among the subgroup of patients with known high-risk anatomical characteristics.
The DAPT Study population included only patients who had taken 12 months of DAPT without experiencing a major bleeding or ischemic event; therefore, findings may not be applicable to patients who have not reached that time point. Coronary anatomy lesion complexity characteristics were site-reported and not reviewed by an angiographic core laboratory, and may not have included all angiographic markers of lesion complexity or risk. Finally, individual lesion complexity factors may modify the treatment effects of prolonged DAPT to different degrees. However, the study was not sufficiently powered to understand this type of heterogeneity in very small subgroups.
Complex target-lesion anatomy is associated with increased ischemic events, particularly within the first year after PCI, but less strongly influences ischemic events thereafter. Among those without events in the first 12 months, the benefits of extending DAPT were similar in subjects with and without complex lesions. High DAPT score identified those experiencing the most benefit from extended treatment among patients with and without complex anatomy.
COMPETENCY IN PATIENT CARE AND PROCEDURAL SKILLS: Patients undergoing PCI of complex target lesions are at elevated risk of ischemic events. Risk diminishes after the first year, such that the benefit of prolonged DAPT becomes independent of lesion complexity. The DAPT score can help predict the benefit and risk of continuing thienopyridine therapy beyond 1 year for patients with and without complex lesions.
TRANSLATIONAL OUTLOOK: Additional investigation is needed to understand the influence of target lesion complexity in populations not well represented in the DAPT study, including those on oral anticoagulation or those undergoing intervention for chronic total occlusion.
This study was sponsored by the Baim Institute for Clinical Research; and was funded by Abbott, Boston Scientific Corporation, Cordis Corporation, Medtronic, Inc., Bristol-Myers Squibb Company/Sanofi Pharmaceuticals Partnership, Eli Lilly and Company, Daiichi Sankyo Company Limited, and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1RO1FD003870-01). Dr. Yeh has received research funding from Boston Scientific and Abiomed; and has served as a consultant for Abbott Vascular and Boston Scientific. Dr. Kereiakes has served as a consultant for and received research funding from Boston Scientific Corporation and Abbott Vascular. Dr. Steg has received research grants from Merck, Sanofi, and Servier; has received consulting fees from Amarin, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Daiichi-Sankyo, Janssen, Lilly, Merck, Novartis, Pfizer, Regeneron, Sanofi, and Servier; and has received speaking fees from Amgen, AstraZeneca, Bayer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Merck, Pfizer, Regeneron, and Sanofi. Dr. Cutlip has received contracted research support from Medtronic, Celonova, and Boston Scientific. Dr. Mauri has received grant funding from Amgen, Abbott, Boston Scientific, Boehringer Ingelheim, Biotronik, Corvia, and Recor; has received honoraria from Daiichi-Sankyo and Sanofi; and has served as a consultant for Amgen, Boehringer Ingelheim, Corvia, and Recor. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Abbreviations and Acronyms
- bare-metal stent(s)
- dual antiplatelet therapy
- drug-eluting stent(s)
- major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular event(s)
- myocardial infarction
- percutaneous coronary intervention
- Received July 12, 2017.
- Revision received August 29, 2017.
- Accepted September 6, 2017.
- 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation
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